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Taariikhda Xiriirka Soomaali iyo Oromo: Qaybtii 3-aad

W/Q: Saciid Shidaad X. Xuseen

Macneynta Taariikhda ee reer Oromo iyo Colaadda Cusub

Faysal Roble wuxuu sharxay qaabka Oromo mar kasta oo ay fursad helaan u dareemaan godob ay ka tirsanayaan dadyow Amxaarada, Soomaalida iyo Hararidu ka mid yihiin.[i] Amxaaro la garey; laakin labada danbe, oo taariikh iyo hayb ay wadaagaan awgeed isu arka dhibbanaha ugu weyn nadaamka Itoobiya,[ii] maxay galabsadeen? Halka ugu habboon oo aan jawaabta ka raadin karnaa waa innagoo fahamna qaabka Oromo u macnaysteen taariikhda Geeska Afrika.

Macnaynta taariikhdaas ee Oromo waxay u adeegtaa abuuridda dareen qarannimo oo Oromo u gaar ah. Waxay inta badan jawaab u tahay qaabkii loo qoray taariikhda Xabasha loona waday dawladdeeda 150-kii sano ee la soo dhaafay. Taariikhda Xabasha waxaa loo dhisay qaab sheeganaya in Geeska Afrika ay Xabashi xukumi jirtay inta kalana iyada raaciye u ahaayeen. Taas waxaa qiil loogu raadinayay qabsashadii Xabasha ee gobolka badankiisa min 1887-dii.

Waxyaalaha la yiri waxaa ka mid ah: Ogaden waa kalmad Xabashi ah (Oga Aden) oo macnaheedu yahay ‘jidka Cadan loo maro’. Taasna waxaa looga dan lahaa in la sheegto in galbeedka iyo waqooyiga Soomaaliyeed ay Xabasha saameyn taariikhi ah ku lahayd. Madaxda Itoobiya badanaa kama gabban jirin inay sheegtaan Soomaaliya annagaa lahaan jirnay.

Qaabka hadda loo abaabulo dareenka qarannimo ee Oromo dariiqadaas oo kale ayuu raacay. Kobcinta dareenka, oo Soomaalidu ka qayb qaateen, waxaa la bilaabay 1970-aadkii, wuxuuse xoogaystay min 1990-aadkii markii Itoobiya loo qaybiyay gobollo-qawmiyadeed. Qarannimo-doonka Oromo wuxuu dadkiisa u sheegay in dhulka hadda Oromo joogto ay markasta ayaku degenaayeen, Soomaaliyana ahaan jirtay dhul Oromo.

Barnaamijka baraarujinta Oromo waxaa muuqata inuu ruuxda ka siibay wixii midaynayay Soomaalida iyo Oromada dariska la ah. Waxaa la ismoogeysiiyay in tan iyo markii Oromada bari bilaabeen inay Muslimaan bartamihii qarnigii 19aad, Soomaali iyo Oromo ku wada noolaayeen walaaltinnimo.

Xataa bilowgii waqtigaas, Soomaalida, Hararida, iyo Oromada Muslimka ahi si wadajir ayay uga hortageen ciidankii Minilik iyo saaxiibadiis soo abaabuleen 1886-dii si ay Harar u qabsadaan.

Ka hor fidnadii Oromiya (Oromia) abuurtay 1990-aadkii, Oromada bari xiriirka iyo isdhexgalka ay Soomaalida la lahaayeen ayay uga qaddarin weynaayeen xiriir kasta oo ay la lahaayeen koox kale oo Itoobiya ku nool.[iii]

Arrinta muuqataa waxay tahay in xoogagga baraarujinta, oo maamulka Oromiga ka mid yahay, ay dareenkii dhaqanka ku salaysnaa ee walaalnimo u baddaleen mid siyaasaddeed oo guubaabo godobeed ah. Laakin Soomaalida ay eedeynayaan miyaanay ahayn kuwa degaankooda lagu tilmaamay inuu markasta yahay “military garrisons whose people live in a dark age”, macnaha “xero ciidan oo dadku u nool yihiin sida wagii mugdiga”?[iv]

Oromia, oo ‘hawraarsan’ ka haysata xukuumadda Itoobiya, miyaanay dadaal muuqda u samayn inay degaanno Soomaali ah khasab ku Oromeyso? Guud ahaan, Islaamka waxaa loo sawiray wax markasta ku foognaa qabsashada dhul Oromo.[v] Dhibbanihii ayaa la digay halkii dhiblaha.

Xataa bare Xasen, arrin Oromo aan khuseynba, halgankii imaam Axmad wuxuu ka dhigay inuu ka mid ahaa isku dhacyadii ugu arxanka darnaa ee ka dhacay adduunka. Usagoo ka faalloonaya kitaabka Futuux al-Xabasha wuxuu qoray:

“In the history of conflict in Africa and beyond few stories of drama and human tragedy equal Imam Ahmed’s conquest of the Christian kingdom of Ethopia. … Anyone interested in understanding the intensity and the brutality of religious war will be rewarded by reading this classic.”[vi]

Tani waxay matalaysaa meelaha sartu ka qurmayaso. Waa dhab in Axmad raadiyay burburinta nadaamka dawladda Xabasha oo ka koobnaa is bahaysi u dhexeeya boqorka, kaniisadda, iyo ciidankooda. Laakin ma xog la’aan ama taxadar  la’aan ayay ka tahay Xasen inuu, sida kuwii  usaga ka horreeyay, halganka Axmad ka xiriir furo waxyaabihii nadaamkaasi ku sameeyay masaajidda, hantida iyo nafaha shacabkii Muslimka ahaa ee uu qabsaday ama ku duulay labadii qarni ee Axmad ka horreeyay?

Maxaa lagu xukumi lahaa falalka halganka Imaam Axmad haddii la barbar dhigi laha kuwii Amxaaro ee muddadaas dheer ama Oromo ee xilligii duullaanka? Halganka Axmad ma wuxuu ka badnaa falcelin iyo isdifaac?[vii] Ma Axmad ayaa leh eedda mushkiladda uu asaaska u dhigay asaasihii dawladda Amxaara, Yikunno-Amlak, kaasoo wiilkiisii xukunka ka dhaxlay uu ku dhawaaqay in aabihi ahaa nin Muslimiinta neceb?[viii] Xil noocee ah ayaa ina ka saaran inaan fahamno in macnaynta leexsan ee taariikhdu ay qayb ka tahay xasillooni darrada ka jirta Geeska Afrika? Taxaddar ayaa ina la wada gudboon.

Guud ahaan, lixda qodob oo hoos ku faahfaahsan ayaa qaabeeyay dareenka colaaddu ka soo burqatay.

  1. Soomaalida iyo Qaddiyadda Oromo

Barnaamijku wuxuu abuuray dareen ah Soomaali iyo Xabashi ma noo kala duwan yihiin.
Dr. Xasen wuxuu Maxamed Siyaad Barre ku eedeeyay inuu Oromada ula dhaqmay sidii dad haawey ah.  Su’aalaha anigu aan la kulmay waxaa ka mid ah: maxaa Soomaalidu Qoti noogu baxsheen? Sow yasid ma aha? Maxay tahay Soomaali-Abbo.[ix]

Dareenku waa meeshiisa, laakin waxaa cad in Soomaalidu mar kasta u damqanayeen qaddiyadda Oromo. Soomaalidu uma arkayn Oromo dad ajnabi ah. Si shuruud la’aan ah ayay ugu noolaayeen Soomaaliya oo xataa u helayeen shaqooyinka dawladda (taasoo hadda sii ballaaratay). Oromoda naftigoodu isuma arkayn dad marti ah. Dabcan Oromodaasi waxay u badnaayeen kuwo Muslim ah. Laakiin siyaasad kala saarid ahi ma jirin.

Xagga siyaasadda, Xasen naftigiisa ayaa ina xusuusinaya in Cumar Carte Qaalib, wasiirkii arrimaha dibadda ee Soomaaliya, 1969-76, uu mar u sheegay golayaasha xukuumadda Soomaaliya in mustaqbalka Itoobiya uu la yaal Oromo. Arday ahaan, waxaan xusuustaa, in arrin sidaas oo kale ah uu noo sharxay macallinkayagii taariikhda fasalka 3aad ee dugsiga sare. Xasen naftigiisu, ka ahaan nin dhallin yar oo wax baranaya, wuxuu fursad u helay inuu qaddiyadda Oromo si weyn ugu sharxo shirkii 1aad ee Cilmibaarista Soomaaliyeed, Muqdisho 1980-kii; iyo xataa inuu la kulmo Madaxweyne M.S. Barre. Soomaalidu markaas, qaddiyadda Oromo waxay dhiirri galinayeen waqti Oromo aan badnayni ay sidaas yeelayeen.

  1. Maqnaysiinta Soomaali: Oromo iyo Qaddiyadda Soomaaliyeed

Dhaqan kale oo aad uga jira Itoobiya wuxuu yahay in qofka qoraya taariikhda Geeska Afrika uu  intii karaankiisa aha afkiisa ka ilaaliyo wax la yiraahdo Soomaali. Marka gobolka la magacaabayo oraahda ugu deeqsisani waa “Itoobiya iyo Geeska ama Ethiopia and the Horn.” Lama qeexin waxa laga wado “Geeska.” Tariikhda Awdal waxaa loo sawiray Muslimiin aan hayb lahayn oo ku soo duulay ama ku fallaagoobay Xabasha oo iyadu meel walba xunkuntay. Waxaa la doorbiday inaan marna la iswaydiin: reer Awdal yey ahaayeen. Taariikh-qorista Itoobiya ka jirta mar kasta waa in wax la qariyaa.

Qorayaasha Oromo waxay doorbideen inay raacaan dariiqadaas naftigeeda. Nin Oromo ah oo Muslim ah oo ka yimid galbeedka Harar, oo intuuna u haajirin Ameerika juqraafiga ka dhigi jiray dugsiyada sare ee Itoobiya, ayaa ii sheegay in fikradda uu ka qabo dagaalkii 1977-78 ay tahay in Soomaalidu doonayeen inay qabsadaan dhul aanay lahayn. Kama muuqan inuu wax kala socda qaddiyadda Soomaali Gelbeed iyo sida dalkaasi ugu mid noqday itoobiya. Haddii ninka noocaas ahi fahmi waayay qaddiyadda Soomaalida, sidee noqonayaan shacabka caadiga ah ee Oromo?

Halkan ka akhri: Taariikhda Xiriirka Soomaali iyo Oromo Q3-xaad

W/Q: Saciid Shidaad X. Xuseen
Email: [email protected]

————————–

Saciid Shidaad waa qoraa, cilmi baadhe iyo taariikh-yahan arimaha Geeska Afrika  aad ugu xeeldheer. Saciid waxa uu si joogta ah ugu soo saaraa qoraalladiisa WardheerNews.

————-

Qeybihii hore:

TAARIIKHDA XIRIIRKA SOOMAALI IYO OROMO-Qebytii 1waad W/Q Saciid Shiidaad

TAARIIKHDA XIRIIRKA SOOMAALI IYO OROMO: DUULLAANKII OROMO EE QARNIGA 16AAD- QEYBTII 2AAD W/Q Saciid S


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