Thursday, September 20, 2018
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Taariikhda Xiriirka Soomaali iyo Oromo

W/Q Saciid Shidaad X. Xuseen

I- Hordhac

Soomaali iyo Oromo waxay ka wada tirsan yihiin Kuushiga Bari, oo ay isla sii yihiin Kuushiga Bari ee Dhul-hoosaadka (KBH) marka la barbardhigo Kuushiga Bari ee Dhul-koraadka (KBK) sida Hadiya iyo Sidamo, Darasa. Markaas dhalasho ahaan, Soomaali iyo Oromo (iyo Cafar-Saho) dadka ayaka ayaa isu xiga. Sidoo kale, dhaqanka labada dhinac waa isku asal. Laakin Oromadu markasta waxay dhaqan ka qaadanayeen Soomaalida. Tan ugu weyni waxay tahay Diinta Islaamka. Oromada bari waxay bilaabeen in ay muslim noqdaan bartamihii qarnigii 19aad, badankooduna waxay ku islaameen sabab Soomaalida leedahay.[i]  Sida ay dhaqanka guud ay uga qaadanayeen waxaa tusaale u ah ereyada: ayaan ama ayaana, xaal, magaalo, amley iyo abaanduule.

Waxaa kale oo la xusay in Oromadu Soomaalida ka barteen farda-fuulka, gaashaanka, iyo waranka xilligii amiir Nuur,[ii] iyo markaas kadib geel-dhaqashada. Laakin xiriirka dhuleed ama juqraafi ee Soomaali iyo Oromo si weyn oo qaldan ayaa loo macneeyay taaso sabab u ah xiriirkooda siyaasadeed ee sii burburaya.

II- Dhib laga Dhaxlay Khuraafo Taariikheed

Muddadii 1854-1964 sahamiyayaasha iyo cilmi-baarayaasha reer Yurub waxay ababinayeen ra’yi ah in Soomaalidu dhulka hadda ay degen yihiin ay ka qabsaden dadka Gaalla kunkii sano ee la soo dhaafay. Gaalla waa magaca dhawaan ka hor loo yiqiin Oromada. Asal ahaan ra’yiga waxa laga maqlay Speke iyo Richard Burton oo Ingliish ahaa oo 1854-tii sahan ku kala maray Sanaag iyo Awdal. Waxay isku qaldeen magaca ‘gaal’ iyo kan ‘Gaalla’. Markasta oo ay Soomaalida ka maqlaan ereyga gaal waxay u macneysanayeen ‘Gaalla’.[iii]

Hasayeeshe madraso ama akademi ahaan waxaa qarnigi tagay ra’yiga meel mariyey Enrico Cerulli oo Talyaani ahaa iyo I.M. Lewis-kii London. Qalad dheeraad ah ayay sii galeen oo waxay isku sii qaldeen ereyada gaal (geel), gaal (kaafir) iyo Gaalla (Oromo), daliil kale oo cilmi ahna ma ay keenin. Arinta la yaabka lihi waxay tahay ayakoo taariikhda Soomaalida ula macaamilay sida wax ku siman kun sano oo kali ah.

Xogbaarihii ugu horreeyay oo ogaaday in ra’yigaasi qaldan yahay wuxuu ahaa Oscar Neumann kadib markuu kula kulmay 1902-dii qabiil Soomaali ah oo qadiim ah (Bayso) Harada Abaaya ee koonfurta Sidamo. Wuxuu soo jeediyay in taariikhda Soomaalidu ka fac weyn tahay sida loo qaatay.[iv] Laakin xogtiisa lama danayn ama dhab looma ogaan ka hor 1964-tii.

Bartamaha 1960-aadkii ayaa la bilaabay in la saxo qaladkaas. Herbert lewis (1962 iyo 1966) Harold Fleming (1964) iyo E. Turton (1975) waxay sharxeen in waxa kaliya oo caddeyn loo hayaa ay tahay in Soomaalidu waqti dheer ku sugnaayeen dhulkooda, marka Oromadu ay ku sugnaayeen oo kaliya dhul koonfur ka xiga Harada  Abaaya oo iyaduna KG ka sii xigta Baali ayakoo waqtigaas bilaabay inay ku soo fidaan dhulka Soomaalida.[v] Ra’yigii hore waqtigaas ayaa la tuuray marka laga reebo I.M. Lewis oo isku sii dhajiyay sabab aan la garanayn owgeed, iyo hadaaqa jahliga ku dhisan ee kuwa bowsaday khuraafadii mar fakatay.[vi]

Xog dheeraad ah oo uu Sasse keenay 1975-tii ayaa sii iftiimisay baaxadda dalkii iyo dadkii qadiimka ahaa ee Soomaaliyeed.[vii] Nuxur ahaan, shan qarni ka hor, degaanka Kuushiga Bari oo dhan ilaa 80% waxaa deganaa Soomaali, dad ahaanna kaligood ayaa ka badnaa inta kale oo dhan.

Waagaas, degaanka Oromo wuxuu u dhigmay wax ka yar 5% dhulkii markaas Soomaalidu deganeyd. Tan kale, cilmibaaris dheeraad ahi waxay tustay in ugu yaraan afar marxalad-luqadeed oo Afsoomaaligu soo maray ay ka maqan yihiin Afka Oromada; sidaas owgeedna, ugu yaraan 2,000 oo sano oo farqi ah ayaa u dhexeeya tadawurka labada luqadood.[viii]

III- Soohdintii Soomaali iyo Oromo ee Qarniga 16aad ka Hor

 Macluumaad ballaaran oo kala duwan ayaa si iswaafaqsan u tusay halka Oromo ku sugnaayeen qarnigii 16aad ka hor iyo soohdintii ay la lahaayeen Soomaali. Nuxurka macluumaadkaasi waa in dhulkoodu ahaa koonfurta Harada Abaaya (arag khariidadda). Ugu horreyn, inay halkaas ku ekaayeen waxaa tustay khariidadda Fra Mauro oo ‘Gaalla’ ku meeleeysay 1460-kii aagga Haradaas.

Halkan ka akhri: Taariikhda Xiriirka Soomaali iyo Oromo

La soco qaybta 2aad: Duulaankii Oromo ee Qarniga 16aad

Q Saciid Shidaad X. Xuseen
Email: saidshidad@gmail.com


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