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Taariikhda Xiriirka Soomaali iyo Oromo: Duullaankii Oromo ee Qarniga 16aad- Qeybtii 2aad

W/Q Saciid Shidaad X. Xuseen

Musdanbeed

“ The Adal Sultanate stretching from Cape Guardafui to Hadiya was taken over by the expanding Ifat Kingdom with its capital at Zeila. As a new hub of a commercial empire, the Adalites prospered under the protection of the Ifat rulers”, prof. Raphael Njoku, 2013.[1]

Af-Soomaali ahaan:

“Saldanadda Awdal oo fidsanayd min Raas Caseyr ilaa Hadiya, waxaa hogaaminteeda la wareegay boqortooyada Awfaat oo magaaalo madaxdeedu ahayd Saylac. Ka ahaan saldhigga boqortooyo-weyn oo ganacsi, dadka reer Awdal waxay ku badhaadheen sida xukuumadda Awfaat isaga xilsaartay ilaalinta amniga qarannimadooda”, buuni (bare Sare) Raphael Njoku.[2]

Bilowgii qarniga 16aad Oromo waxay ku tallaabsatay fiditaan iyo duullaan aan noociisa horay loogu arag Geeska Africa. Duullaankaas ma wada fahmi karno haddaynaan marka hore wax ka fahmin taariikhda dawladdii Awdal. Dawladdaas, oo magacyo kalana loo yiqiin,[3] waxaa lagu asaasay Saylac ama Zaylac waqti ku dhow 850-kii. Abbaaraha 1200-kii waxay ahayd inbaradooriyad ku siman  waqooyi gabeed (WG) ee Shawa ilaa Wabiga Omo oo ku dara Harada Baḋ ama Turkana.

Isla waqtigaas ayay bilaabatay in xarunta dawladdu noqoto meelo ku yaal gudaha sida Awfaat, Dagal, Dakar iyo Harar. Labada hore waxay oollaayeen sanaagga dhulkoraadka Shawa.

Dawladda Amxaara oo 1270-kii  ka soo baxday gobolka Wallo, ayaa ku soo fidday waqooyiga Shawa. Xiisad ayaa oogantay. Awdal iyo Amxaara aaggaas ayey ku dagaallameen 1298. Muddadii 1328-1332 Awdal waxaa laga qabsaday dhulalka Shawa, Fatagaar, Dawaaro, Hadiya, iyo degmada Zila ee galbeedka Baali. Soohdinta cusubi waxay noqotay khad  ku dhow jidka laamiga ah ee maanta koonfur iyo waqooyi uga baxa Addis Ababa.

Kacdoon waddaniyadeed iyo dib isuhabeen kaddib, 1363-1517-kii Awdal waxay Amxaara ku haysay dagaal culus oo joogto ah oo ay ku dooneysay inay dhulkaas kusoo ceshato. Taasi aakhirkii waxay ku meel martay ololihii Imaam Ahmad ee 1527-1543 oo usaga naftigiisu ku soo baxay kacdoon waddaniyadeed oo socday 1517-1527dii. Hasayeeshee arrinta aan waligeed la inoo sheegini waxay tahay, in Oromo tahay cidda kaliya oo ka faa’iidday shaqadii weyneyd ee ay qabteen Soomaalidii Axmad hogaamiyay.[4] Bartamihii qarniga 16aad, Xabashidu ma sii aheyn khatarta ugu weyn ee ku oogan Soomaalida ee waxay ahaayeen Oromada. 

Bilawgii Duullaanka

Xogta taariikheed ee faahfaahsan ee Oromo waxaa bilaabay Bahrey oo ahaa baadari Amxaaro ah oo goobjoog u ahaa fiditaankooda. Sida ka muuqata qooraalkiisa si toos ah ayuu Oromada u wareysanayay. Wuxuu sheegay inay ka yimaadeen koonfurta Harada  Abaaya, iyadoo meelihii ugu horreeyay ee ay baabi’iyeen uu degaanka haradu ka mid ahaa. Kaddib waxay soo weerareen Baali xilligii Imaam Axmad, ka hor iyo kadib 1530-kii. Marka danbe waxay ka soo tallaabeen ‘Wabi’ (Shabeelle). Waqti ku dhow 1550-kii waxay baabi’yeen Dawaaro iyo Fatagaar. Muddadan oo guud ahaan ku beegan 1522-54, mar kasta waxay dib ugu noqonoyeen, ayuu caddeeyay, saldhiggooda oo kuma nagaaneyn goobaha ay ku soo duuleen.[5] Aagga buurta Walabo ee manbaca Ganaane ilaa Baali ayaa waqtigaas ku weynaa Oromo sida hiddahoodu sheegay.[6]

Awdaliyiintu 1530-kii ayay galeen galbeedka Baali ee Amxaaradu haysatay. Carabfaqiih, qoraha Futuuxal-Xabasha, ma soo qaadin Oromada iyo duulaankooda toonna, wuxuuse xusay dad gaalo ah oo uuna magac dhabin, oo ku sugnaa Amxaarada agtooda. Ciidanka Imaam Axmad wixii gaalo ah ma kala soocayn. Muddadii 1554-62, ayay bilaabeen inay ku nagaadaan dhulalka ay qabsadeen, waana waqtiga ay bilaabeen weerarka wax ku oolka ah iyo inay fuulaan fardaha iyo buquulaha.  Bahrey wuxuu caddeeyay inay markaa ka hor dili jireen dadka iyo xoolaha oo dhan oo fardaha iyo baqluhu ku jiraan, marka laga reebo ariga iyo lo’da. Xilligii 1578-86 waxay barteen gaashaanka iyo warmaha birta ah.[7]

Warkiisii ugu horreeyay ee Awdal iyo Oromo, Bahrey wuxuu sheegay Oramadu inay Awdal jabiyeen dilkii Galawdiwos kaddib. Amiir Nuur oo ahaa aysinka Imaam Axmad, 1559-kii ayuu WG ee Hadiya ku jabiyay oo ku dilay Galawdiwos iyo Boortaqiiskii caawinayay.[8] Goobta Awdaliyiinta lagaga adkaaday oo uu Bahrey ku magacaabay Hazalo, ayaduna kama fogeyn aaggaas, waayo wax war ah oo danbe kama sheegin xiriirka Awdal iyo Oromo, taasoo tuseysa in uuna waxba ka ogeyn ama daneyneyn waxa ka dhacaya bartamaha Awdal.

Sidoo kale, Awdaliyiintu 1560-aadkii ayay markii ugu horreysay xuseen duullaanka Oromada ee Awdal. Taariikhyahanka Awdal, oo sida Bahrey ku beegnaa 1590-aadkii, si gaar ah uma xusin goobta Hazalo, laakin wuxuu si guud u sheegay dilkii Galawdiwos kadib Oromadu inay weerar ku hayeen dhulalka Awdal. Wuxuu si tiiraanyo leh uga hadlay jihooyinka oo dhan inay qabsanayeen. Gaar ahaan wuxuu caddeeyay inay qabsadeen oo kharribeen dhulalka Shawa, Gidaye, Hargaye, Dakar, Nogob, iyo Sim oo Galbeed ka xigaty Nogob. Wixii intaa ka soo haray oo Awdal ahina inay maciinsadeen dhufays ama khandaq.[9] Taas macnaheedu waa inay markaa ka hor soo qabsadeen dhulalkii Baali iyo Dawaaro.

Shawa, Gidaye, Hargaye waxay ahaayeen qabiilooyin Soomaaliyeed oo qadiim ah oo deganaa koonfur bari (KB) ee Shawa iyo
Koonfurta Awfaat. Waxaa ka sii shisheeyey Wargax oo deganaa Waqooyiga Shawa, oo ayaku ku lumay duullaankii Amxaarada. Markii qabiilooyinkani gacan galeen gulufka ugu weyni wuxuu ku socday Xarle Koombe oo ahaa tiir dhexaadka difaaca Awdal.

Intuuna dhiman 1567-dii Amiir Nuur wuxuu Harar Oromada kaga difaacay darbiga ay markaas kadib ku caanbaxday. Laakin dhammaadkii qarniga magaalooyinkii kale ee gudaha oo dhan waa baaba’een. Colaaddii guunka ahayd ee u dhaxaysay Muslimiinta iyo Nasaaradu waxay labadan dhinac ka qarisay khatarta Oromoda. Taas waxaa tusaya ayakoo ilaa 1575-tii weli ku sii dagaallamayay Hadiya, iyadoo Xarumahoodii Oromo hareeraysay. Sida muuqata Oromadu waxay waqtigaas gaadheen dhulhoosaadka Awdal iyo Cafar. Waxayba galbeedka fog ee Jabuuti ku dileen 1583-dii Amiir Muxammad Gaas, oo qaraabo la ahaa Imaam Axmad, iskuna dayayay inuu badbaadiyo Awdal.[10]

Ma aha oo kaliya inay ka adkaadeen labadii quwadood ee hidda ahaaneed.  Waxay kaloo muddo ka yar qarni ku burburiyeen dad kasta oo gobolka degen oo ay wajaheen. Muddadii 1550-1630, waxay qabsadeen: min duleedka Kismaayo iyo Malindi ilaa koonfurta Tigrey; iyo min dhulhoosaadka Awdal ilaa xadka K Suudaan.[11] Kaliya bartamahii qarniga 19aad ayay joojiyeen gulufkaas. 

Maxaa Awdal u Jabisay Xabashi laakin iyada Oromo u Jabisay?

Taariikhyahanka Oromo ee la yiraahdo Moxamed Cali Xasan, wuxuu ku macneeyay guulaha ballaaran ee Oromadu ka gaadheen Muslimiinta iyo Nasaarada iyadoo labadani ay loolankii dhexdooda ahaa naf iyo maalba isku marteen, gobollada dagaalku ka dhacayna dadkoodii barakaceen, marka 1543 Muslimiintu jabeenna qalalaase dheeraad ahi abuurmay, kadibna Oromadu si sahal ah u dul martay dhul xaaladahaasi u sahleen (sallaxeen).[12]

Laakin runtii tani kaliya waxay noqon kartaa qayb ka mid ah sababta. Waa dhab in barakac weyni ka dhacay Hadiya ka bacdi markii Amxaaradu ku soo laabteen jabka kadib. Hayeeshee, barakac weyni ma dhicin intii jihaadku socday, sababtoo ah: gobollada koonfur iyo galbeed ee dagaalku saameeyay dadkoodu wuxuu u badnaa Muslim kuwaasoo soo dhaweeyay ciidanka Awdal; dagaalkuna wuxuu ku wajahnaa ciidanka Xabashida. Sababta kowaad ee saldhigga u ah guusha Oromadu waxay ahayd dabeecadda dagaalkooda.

Inkastoo ujeedada dagaalku ku koobneyd in la jabiyo cadowga kadibna la dhaco, haddana Q16-aad Oromo waxay noqotay ummad qaadatay dhaqan dagaal. Oromadu waxay lahaayeen nadaam xukun oo la yiraahdo ‘Gada’. Qabiilooyinku kuma midaysneyn boqor,  waxayse ku midaysnaayeen dhaqankaas. Nadaamka Gada waxaa ugu muhimsanaa labo xeer: in qabiilku siddeedii sanaba uu mar isugu yimaado dabbaaldeg weyn, oo la yiraahdo butta; iyo in sidoo kale siddeedii sanaba mar la doorto madax cusub. Nashaadka butta waxaa ka mid ah soo bandhigidda suugaanta dagaalka, kaddibna la qaado dagaal weyn oo aan lahayn meel uu ku istaago iyo wax uu dhaafayo. Laga bilaabo ragga gaaray gadaha qondhala (16-24 sano) waa inay dagaal galaan. Markaas, Gada nuxurkiisu wuxuu ahaa in la qaado duullaan iyo in la doorto da’da cusub ee hogaaminaya dagaalka.[13]

Hawlgalka dagaalka Oromadu wuxuu ahaa mid hayaan ah oo shacab guurayaa uu qabsanayay jiho iyo cadaw aan xadidnayn. Laakin wuxuu aha mid abaabulan. Bermudes oo ka mid ahaa koox Boortaqiis ah oo aad u hubaysan oo ku sugnaa saldhigyada koonfureed ee Xabasha oo arkay ciidan Oromo ah oo weerar ahi wuxuu yiri: waxay ahaayeen “waxaan la tirin karin, laakin, uma dhaqaaqayn si aan habaysnayn sidii haawey, waxay u soo socdeen safaf, sidii horimo”.[14]

Dhaqanka dagaalkoodu laakin wuxuu ahaa mid xanbaarsan burbur iyo argagax. Dadka meelaha ay qabsadaan waa inay dhintaan ama Oromo noqdaan. Qorayaasha Boortaqiiska, kuwa Amxaara iyo kuwa Awdal waxay isku raaceen baqdin, argagax iyo carar asiibay dadyowga gobalka. Bermudes mar kale wuxu yiri: “Waxay ahayeen dad ba’an oo arxan daran, kuwaasoo dagaalka ku hayay dariskooda, inay burburiyaan oo ka cayriyaan dalkooda kaliya awgeed. Meelaha ay qabsadaan waxay dilaan ragga oo dhan, wiilasha ka jaraan qooraha, dilaan dumarka waaweyn, kuwa yaryarna u haystaan isticmaal iyo ku shaqaysi”.[15] Bahrey ayaa ku raacsan oo sheegay: dadyowgii ay dhulkooda qabsadeen waxay ka dhigeen “addoon la yiraahdo gabra”.[16]

Sidoo kale, Awdalyiintu Oramada waxay u arkayeen cadaw aan isagoo kale horay loo arag. Inta badan qorayaasha Awdal markay soo qaadaan magaca ‘Gaalla’ waxay ku lifaaqayeen ‘Allaha hoojiyo – khaḋalahumullaah’. Waxayna ku tilmaameen ‘kooxdii fasaadka’.[17] Taasoo macnaheedu yahay in aanay Muslim ahayn. Almeida oo ahaa Boortaqiis gaaray Xabasha 1624-tii si uu u darso, isaguna wuxuu sheegay in Oromadu Awdal iyo Xabasha labadaba masiibo ku ahaayeen, dhulkoodiina qabsadeen.[18]

Duullaanka iyo Qaabeyntii Bulshada Oromo ee Maanta Jirta

Arrin caymo ah oo Oromadu aqbali karayeen waxay ahayd dadku gabi ahaan inay ka tagaan haybtooda oo Oromo noqdaan. Ayadoo la fulinayo nadaamka qaadashada ee moggaasa (tolayn), labada dhinac waa inay munaasabad rasmi ah ku dhawaaqaan oo ku heshiyaan inay midoobeen. Markaas laga bilaabo qabiilka la qaatay wuxuu noqonayaa ilma gossa (ilma tol). Waxaa lagu dhamaystiraa andhura oo ah xoolo gooyo loo fidiyo qabiilka la qaatay. Tolayntu uma dhacdo oo kaliya heer qabiil. Waxay kaloo u dhacdaa heer qofeed. Waalidku wuxuu qaadan karaa ilmo aanu dhalin, kaasoo si rasmi ah u noqonaya mid ka mid ah caruurtiisa (Oromo waxay dhaqan u lahaayeen inay tuuraan carruurta aanay rabin). Qaabkan asaga waxaa la yiraahdaa guddifaja. Sidaa darteed ayay si qorshaysan u qaateen dadyowgii ay qabsadeen oo dhan, taasoo abuurtay Oromada aan maanta naqaan.[19] Xasan oo arrinta soo koobayaa wuxuu qoray:

“At this point it must be stated clearly that there was no such thing as a “pure” Oromo tribe derived from a single founding father… the history of the Oromo people is not a collection of histories of individual tribes or group of tribes, but a story of fusion and interaction by which all tribes and groups had altered and been transformed constantly. This was made possible by a dynamic Oromo institution (the gada system), the process of adoption, continual migration, conquest, assimilation, and interaction with other groups.”[20]

Dadyowgaas Oromadu qaateen oo qoruhu uuna faahfaahin, waxaa ka mid ah, inta la ogyahay, Soomaali, Hadiya-Sidamo, Gurage-Silte, Omiyiin, Maaya, Gafaat, Agaw iyo Cafar. Qaybo waaweyn oo Oromo ka mid ah sida koonfurta, bartamaha iyo galbeedku si cad ayay u qeexaan dadka la qaatay ayakoo ugu yeera Gabaro ama Gabra, Dhalata, ama Yabata.[21]

Dhanka Soomaalida, Oromada maanta degen Booran, Guji, Baali, Dawaaro (Arsi), Koonfurta Shawa iyo Awfaat, iyo dhulkoraadka Harar lakabkooda hoose, waa Soomaali. Ilaa bartamihii qarniga 19-aad, dadkii taariikhiga ahaa ee Awdal wuxuu noqday Oromo marka laga reebo dhulka yar ee u dhexeeya Jigjiga iyo Baabile.

Si kastabee, waa inaan ogaannaa in arrinta kale ee Awdal u loogtay Oromo ay ahayd iyadoo dawladdii toddobada qarni jirtay ay min 1569-kii guda gashay dagaal sokeeye oo xanuun badan oo aan ka soo kabasho lahayn kaasoo ka dhashay qalaldaad ay madaxda Awdal galayeen tan iyo 1518-kii.[22]

Ugu danbeyn, waxaa muuqata in qarnigii 18-aad Oromada laga soo saaray dhulhoosaadka Awdal iyo Cafar. Waana sababta looga helo goosanno Oromo ah oo soomaaliyoobay min Nogob ilaa Gabiley. Laakin haddana bartamaha qarniga 19-aad, Oromo weli waxay weerarayeen qaybta Jigjiga ee dooxada Marar.  Dhanka koonfur, muddadii 1842-1915, Soomaalidu waxay guluf joogto ah kula soo noqdeen dhulka Jubba-Taana oo Oromadu ka qabsatay qarnigii 17-aad. Arrimahaas waxaa wax ka baddalay barnaamijkii isticmaarka. Laakiin tan iyo 1991-dii mar kale, hadba colaad ayaa ka huraysay soohdinta Soomaali iyo Oromo.[23] Maxay taasi salka ku haydaa?

La soco qaybta 3aad oo ah gabagabadii.

W/Q: Saciid Shidaad X. Xuseen
Email: saidshidad@gmail.com

—–

[1] Hussein, Said Shidad, Ruined Towns, forthcoming.

[2] Dr. Njoko wuxuu soo koobayaa xogta ballaaran ee qarniyadii dhexe ee ku saabsan Awdal sida qoraalka Awdaliga ah ee Q 13aad,  Al-Maqriizi Q 15aad, iyo Fransisco Alvares Q 16aad. Wuxuuna tixraacayaa waqtiga (abbaaraha 1200-kii) ay xukunka dawladda qabteen qoyska Walasmac Jabarti oo saldhiggoodu ahaa magaalada Awfaat oo farac u ahayd Saylac.

[3] Magacyadeeda kale waxay ahaayeen Jabarti, Bilaadu Zaylac, iyo laga bilaabo 1403-dii Barri-Sacduddiin.

[4] Awdal waxay dawlad u ahayd Muslimiinta Geeska Afrika oo dhan iyo xataa dadyow aan Muslim ahayn asii ka soo horjeeday fiditaanka Amxaara. Laakin Harariyiinta ayay ahaayeen kuwa si gaar ah ula wadaagayay Soomaalida naf iyo maal oo ay si weyn isu dhexgaleen.
[5] Bahrey, 1954, 111, 116, 121, 128-9.
[6] Herbert Lewis, 1966, 35; Mohamed Hassen, Oromo of Ethiopia: A history 1750-1860, 1990, 18-19: Cambridge Univ. Press.
[7] Bahrey, 1954, 114, 120.
[8] Ibid, 117-8.
[9] Taariikhul-Muluuk ku Cerulli, Documenti arabi per la storia dell’Etiopia, in Reale Accademia Nazionale Dei Lincei, 1931, 53.
[10] Ibid.
[11] H. Lewis, 1966, 30-35.
[12] Hassen, 1990, 19- 20.
[13] Hassen, 1990, 11-13; Huntingford, the Galla of Ethiopia, 1955, 58.
[14] Pankhurst, R. 1997, The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of 18th Century,  283, Red Sea Press.
[15] Ibid.
[16] Bahrey, 1954, 111, 116, 121, 128-9; Pankhurst 1997, 284.
[17] Cerulli, Documenti arabi, 1931.
[18] Almeida in Beckingham & Huntingford, 1954, 134, 195-6.
[19] Hassen, 1990, 21-2.
[20] Ibid, 1990, 4-5.
[21] History of the Oromo to the Sixteenth Century, 2006.  A. Haile, B. Gonfa, D. Deressa, S. Busha, U. Nure. Oromia Culture and Tourism Bureau, p. 195.
[22] Hussein, Ruined Towns.
[23] Bilowgii colaadda arag: Bassi Marco. 1997. Returnees in Moyale District, Southern Ethiopia: New Means for an Old Inter-ethnic Game –  in Hogg R. ed.: Pastoralists, Ethnicity and the State in Ethiopia. London.


Qeybihii hore:

TAARIIKHDA XIRIIRKA SOOMAALI IYO OROMO-Qebytii 1waad W/Q Saciid Shiidaad


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