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Xeerka Abtirsiinta Erayga Af-Soomaaliga

W/Q Aw Cabdiqani Xasan Muxumed

Waxaan akhriyey oo aan aad u dhuuxay buugga magaciisu yahay “Abtirsiinta Erayga Afsoomaaliga” ee uu qoray Caliqeyr Muxumed Nuur. Bilowgii waxa ugu horreeya ee i soo jiitay waa maabka dusha sare, markii dambe ayaan gudaha buugga ka ogaan doonaa in qoraagu ula jeedo qariidadda af Soomaaliga. Taasina sax ma aha marka laga eego jasiiradda Suqandara oo la oran karo maanta waa dhul af Carabi looga hadlo, waana jasiirad ka tirsan dalka Yemen.

Dusha sare ee buugga waxaa kale oo isoo jiitay weerta qoraaga oo ah “Waa buug ku baraya afsoomaaliga oo dhan mana jiri doono eray aadan aqoon ujeeddadiisa guud”. Si taas la mid ah dhowr xeeldheerayaal oo buugga wax ka yiri ayaa waxaa ka mid ah Dr. Anwar Maxamed Diiriye, Dr. Maxamed Daahir Afrax iyo Dr. Georgi L. Kapchits. Intuba waxay muujinayaan yididiilo iyo ammaan. Tusaale ahaan Dr. Anwar wuxuu oranayaa “Raadgurka cilmi cusub oo aan hore loo ogeyni waxa uu astaan togan u yahay kartida, dulqaadka, geesinnimada, kalsoonida & dhabar adaygga hal-abuurka dhiirran! Caliqeyr M. Nuur, waxa uu ibafuray xikmad afka Soomaaliga u dahsoonayd; Waxa uu soo xaarey guntii sirta ereyga; Waxa uu firsoocay ‘ab’ asalkiisa & isirkiisaba aan hore loo hollin loona ijtihaadin ogaalkay. Buuggani waxa uu biladdaye u noqon doonaa fahamka guud ee unugga ereyga AfSoomaaliga.”

Dhammaan arrimahaas aan soo sheegay waxay igu qaadeen in aan buugga ka gungaaro, in aan baaro wixii laga yiri (peer reviews) iyo weliba inaan warsado isla qoraaga si aan diidmo iyo taageeraba ula wadaago. Saddexdaas qodob ayey ku salaysan tahay qormadeydaan iyo weliba sida aan anigu u arkay. Dhaliil iyo ammaanba waxay ila noqotay in aanan ka aammusi karin wixii aan ogaaday.

Waa maxay abtirsiinta eraygu?

Abtirsiinta eraygu waa laba aragtiyood oo is barkan kana kooban 180 eray oo sida uu qoraagu qabo aasaas u ah afka bini’aadamku ku hadlo iyo xeer ka kooban toban qodob oo hab cusub u kala saafaya erayga. Haddii aan sii bidhaamiyo xeerka iyo 180 eray sidaan ayey isula shaqeynayaan:

1.Boqol iyo siddeetanka eray: Waa erayo ka kooban hal shaqal iyo hal shibbane, mid kastaana qoraagu wuxuu raaciyey macnihiisa waana erayada uu ku sheegay inay aasaas u yihiin afafka aadanaha oo dhan.

2. Xeerka abtirsiinta erayga: Waa xeer ka kooban toban qodob oo doorkiisu yahay keliya in uu kuu kala saafo erayga kaagana soo dhex saaro erayo ka kooban hal shaqal iyo hal shibbane. Marka uu xeerku ku siiyo erayadaas ayaad dib ugu noqonaysaa 180ka eray si aad u ogaato macnaha erayadaas, sidaas ayaad ku helaysaa macnaha asalka ah ee eraygaas.

Tusaale ahaan erayga “abaal” wuxuu xeerku u kala qaadayaa “ab – aal”. Haddana qodobka labaad ee xeerku wuxuu oranayaa “Hal shibbane haddii ay laba shaqal oo isku mid ahi gadaal ama hore ka marto waxaa shaqalladaas laga qaadanayaa hal keli ah”. Marka qodobkaan la raaco eraygii “Ab–aal” wuxuu noqonayaa “ab – al” oo wuxuu waafaqayaa qodobka koowaad oo sheegaya in salka eraygu yahay hal shibbane iyo hal shaqal. Marka aan sidaas ku helnay “ab” iyo “al” kaddib ayaan macnahooda ka baaraynaa taxda 180ka eray oo mid kastaaba gaarkeeda kuugu fasiraysa sidaasna waxaa kuugu soo baxaya macnaha dhabta ah ee ‘abaal’ sida qoraagu qabo.

Xeerka Caliqeyr mar walbaba wuxuu erayga kaa tusayaa dacal kale oo ka duwanaan kara sidii loo yiqiin, haddii si loo fiiriyana maangal noqonaya. Haddana ila arka tusaale aan ka keenay bogga 26aad ee buugga oo uu ku fasirayo erayga “laba”. Hadafkeygu waa in aan aragno sida ay isula shaqeynayaan xeerka iyo 180ka eray.

4. Laba –da (m):  Tirada u dhexeysa kow iyo saddex.

Qodobka 4aad ee Xeerka Abtirsiinta Eraygu wuxuu jidaynayaa in eraygii ka kooban laba shibbane ama wax ka badani uu noqonayo laba eray ama in ka badan oo midowday. Sidaas awgeed, erayga ‘laba’ wuxuu u kala dhambalmayaa la + ba.

La = La’aan; wax li’i; ayaanka la’aanta oo uu lidkiisu  yahay al.

Ba = Dhammaad; baabba’. Ba waa ayaanka geerida ee lidka ku ah ab oo ah ayaanka taranka iyo samaanta.

Dhaqanka jiritaanku waa in aanay jirin walax kaligood raagi kara haddii aanay helin lammaane dheelli-tira. Sidaas awgeed wixii ahaa kow ama mid qura haddii ay helaan mid kale waxay noqonayaan kuwa la’ ba’ oo aanan ba’i doonin. Misana sidaas ayey lammaanihii ku noqonayaan ba’ la’ aan ama la-ba.

Sida ka muuqata tusaalaha kore fasirkaasi wuxuu kulminayaa saddex xagal oo kala ah, macnaha tooska ah ee erayga, macnaha dahsoon ee asalka ah iyo macne xiriirinaya labadaas oo sheegaya sababta ka dambeysa in aan lambarkaas ugu yeerno “laba”. Inta ogaalkeygu yahay weli lama arag laan afeed oo sida tan oo kale u dhaadhacda macnaynta qurubyada eraygu ka dhismo.

Dhaliilaha Xeerka Abtirsiinta Erayga

Intii aan qormadaan diyaarinayey waxaan baaray gebi ahaan wixii qoraal laga sameeyey aragtidaan cusub. Dhaliilahaas oo ka kooban kuwa aan akhristayaasha ka ururiyey, kuwa aniga ii gaar ah iyo qormooyin aan internet-ka ka helay ayaan halkan idinkula wadaagayaa, dabcan marka teyda laga reebo inta kale wax baan ka oran doonaa sida aan u arko.

Cabdiraxmaan Faarax Barwaaqo wuxuu qoray gorfeyn uu cinwaan uga dhigay Xeerka abtirsiinta erayga af Soomaaliga iyo sidaan arko. Qormadani aad ayey u dheer tahaywaxaanse is dultaagayaa dhowr qodob oo ah nuxurka qormadaan.

  • “Xeerkani wuxuu ka hor imaanayaa habka astaynta soohdimaha alannada ee la yiqiin.”

Inta aanu Barwaaqo sidaas qorin wuxuu soo dulmaray hababka erayga loo kala saafo, habdhismeedka naxwaha afafka iyo habraacii qoraalka far Soomaaliga. Halkaan waxaad mooddaa in uu Barwaaqo seeggan yahay waxa uu buuggu ka hadlayo. Xeerarka afafku waxay darsaan eray dhisan, waxayna baraan habka erayadu iskugu xirmaan, balse aragtida Caliqeyr way ka gun dheertahay xeerarkaan oo waxay la macaamilaysaa qurubyada uu eraygu ka samayso. Marka la cuskado naxwaha, sarfiga iyo xeerarka maanta la yaqaan qof waliba waa uu beenin karaa aragtidaan cusub. Qofkii aragtidaan gorfeynaya waxaan kula talin lahaa in uu la aado laamaha lagu darso asalka afafka, sababta oo ah waa aragti ka hadlaysa afkii Aadan & Xaawo (CS) oo kulama doodi karno xeerarkii far Soomaaliga ee 1973kii ama kuwa aan sidaas uga horreyn. Marka aad eegto tixraaca seeska u ah doodda Barwaaqo waa qaamuusyo, buug suugaaneed, maqaallo ka hadlaya habdhismeedka af Soomaaliga iwm.

  • “Aragtiyaha is burinaya”.

Qodobkaan wuxuu Barwaaqo ku qaadaa-dhigay aragtiyo is burinaya. Tusaale ahaan wuxuu oranayaa: “Ayaan: Bogga 9aad ee buugga, wuxu qoruhu inoo sheegay in eraygaasi yahay mid ka mid ah 180ka eray ee dhaliya af Soomaaliga. Haseyeeshee, kolka aad eegto shaxda 180ka eray ee aasaaska u ah af Soomaaliga ee ku xusan bogga 12aad, eraygaasi kuma jiro.

Halkan wuxuu Barwaaqo kala jarayaa weer saddex hakad leh oo haddii la wada qori lahaa uu macnuhu iska caddaan lahaa. Boggaas 9aad wuxuu qoraagu ku oranayaa: “Ayaan: Mid ka mid ah 180ka eray ee dhaliya afsoomaaliga. Tusaale –ayaanka Ab wuxuu lid ku yahay ayaanka Ba’. Ayaanka Ar isaguna waa lidka ayaanka Ra”.

Halkaan iyo qormooyinka dambe ee buuggaba waxaa ku cad in erayga “ayaan” uu qoraagu u adeegsaday eray-bixinta 180 eray ee uu yiri waa salka afafka. Inta aad buugga akhrinayso waxaad arkaysaa –ayaanka el, ayaanka om, ayaan sa, ayaanka ig iwm. Meeshaan Barwaaqo wuxuu dhaliilayaa weer aanu fahmin ama uu si ula-kac ah u kala reebay hadal is kaamilaya.

  • In xagga hadalka ay carruurta Soomaalidu ka duwan tahay kuwa dadyowga kale.

Barwaaqo wuxuu oranayaa “Carruurta Soomaaliyeedna waxa lagu tilmaami karaa inay yihiin carruurta qudha ee adduunka eray ujeeddo leh ku hadaaq barata, kana boodda ama ka tallaabsata jaranjar ka mid ah kuwa loo maro barashada afka hooyo”

Tani waa dhalanteed, mana sheegi karo meel uu Barwaaqo ka soo xigtay. Carruurta Soomaalidu sida ilmaha dadyowga kale ayey u hadaaqaan sanadka hore. Waxaad mooddaa in odaygu sheegayo wax kasta ee lagu iba-xiri karo aragtidaan. Marka aad kor ka eegto dhaliishiisu waa qormo habeysan oo runsheeg u eg, laakiin marka aad sidan oo kale qodob qodob isu dultaagto kuma arkeysid run ama wax u babac-dhigi kara Xeerka Abtirsiinta Erayga.

Ibraahim Yuusuf Axmed “Hawd” oo ah qoraa ku caana lafagurka qoraallada iyo aragtiyada soo ifbaxa ayaa isaguna ka mid ahaa akadeemika taageerada u muujiyey Xeerka Abtirsiinta Erayga. Hawd, wuxuu qormadiisa ku oranayaa “Waa buug ina baraya af soomaaligu sidiisaba in uu ka curto ama ka unkamo 180 dhawaaq oo giddigii asal u ah. Afka aynnu ku hadlaynno oo dhani in uu ka koobnaado 180 cod, sidaana lagu baran karo ayaa ah cajabta ugu weyn ee meesha igaga soo baxday. Haddii ay taasi rumowdana kollay anigu aragtidii aan ka haystay bilawga iyo abuurta afka waxaa ku dhacaya afgembi weyn”

Meel kale oo qormadiisa ka mida ayuu Hawd ku cabbirayaa heerka qanaacadiisa iyo taaba-galnimada aragtidaan cusub, wuxuu yiri: “Midina waa biyakamadhibcaan oo buugga uu Caliqeyr M. Nuur ina soo hordhigay waa buug dhisan oo ciddii culuunta af soomaaliga raadisaa weligeed ku hakan doonto. Fikradda ku qorani iyada oo ah wax innagu cusub oo ka duwan wixii aynnu abuurta afka ka naqaannay, haddana qoraagu sida uu wax u soo bandhigay cid walba wuu kaga gar helayaa. Kollay anigu yaabka aan buugga ka la kulmay waxaa ii dheer garawshiinyo iyo hamrasho buuxda oo aan siinayo, waayo waxaa la ina hor dhigayaa tusaalooyin cadcad oo muran inoo diidaya.”

Abuukar Albadri oo ah qoraa iyo suxufi ayaa isaguna qoray maqaal uu cinwaankiisu yahay “Afsoomaaligii oo abtirsiimo loo helay”. Qormadan waxaad mooddaa in qoraaga aad loogu taageerayo, waxaana ka muuqata in isaga iyo Caliqeyr ku kulmeen bar buugga lagu soo bandhigayey. Qormada Albadri oo aad u dheer waxay 180ka eray ku koobeysaa af Soomaaliga. Tusaale ahaan suxufigu wuxuu oranayaa “Buuggu wuxuu gebi ahaanba u abtirinayaa erayada Af Soomaaliga, wuxuuna soo bandhigayaa waxa ay ku fadhiyaan macne ahaan tirooyinka Soomaaliga, isagoo qoraagu sheegayo xiriirka ka dhexeeya tirooyinka Soomaaliga iyo roobka ama cimilada guud ahaan”.

Doodi kama taagna in buuggu si qoto dheer uga hadlayo kalandarka Soomaalida iyo macnaha tirada (0 – 100) isaga oo lambar kastaaba ku saleynaya meerto ay marto cimilada dhulka Soomaalidu degto. Waxaase meesha ku jirta in uu qoraagu aragtidiisan ku sheegayo mid kulminaysa afafka jira oo dhan, meelaha qaarna uu xeerka ku saleynayo erayo ka yimid afafka Oromo, Konso, Sanskrit iwm. Aragtidaan waxaa ii sii bidhaamiyey su’aalo aan qoraaga naftiisa warsaday iyo bandhigyadii uu dalka Sweden ku qabtay oo uu xeerkiisa iyo erayadaan ku salaynayey afafka qalaad, gaar ahaan kuwa Jermaanika (Germanic languages).

Mar aan qoraaga weydiiyey in xeerkaanu quseeyso af Soomaaliga oo keliya iyo in uu yahay mid koobaya afafka oo dhan, wuxuu yiri: “Laba arrin baa mudan in la kala saaro. 180ka eray waa salka afafka oo fagaarayaal badan ayaan ku soo bandhigay, cidna dood ma gelin sida aan u muujiyey. Xeerkuna waa sidaas oo kale oo afafka oo idil baa loo adeegsan karaa. Haa, way jiri doonaan qodobbo ay lama huraan tahay in loo sameeyo farqado sii ifinaya si loogu maareeyo codad afafka qaar u gaar ah”.

Artagtida buuggu ku qotomo

Asalka afka aadanaha xaggee ayuu ka soo jeedaa? Sidee ayuu ku bilowday afka lagu hadlo? Goormee ayuu bilowday? Raadgurka su’aalahaas waxay qarniyo badan xiisad iyo loollan aragtiyeed ka abuurayeen inta u dhexeysa maamiyayaasha (philosophers) af-aqoolka ah, saynisyahanka, wadaadada diimaha, qorayaal caadi ah iyo qorayaal igman oo ugu xagliya aragtiyo siyaasadeed.

Daahfurka Caliqeyr ee abtirsiinta eraygu wuxuu qaanad ka gelayaa baadi-goobkaas asalka afka aadanaha ama haddii si kale loo yiraa ‘furista halxiraalaha ugu adag ee la soo darsay cilmi-baarayaasha af-aqoolka’. Waxa ka dhigay halxiraale adag waa iyadoon kayd qoran laga hayn ab-awaladii hore iyo codka dadeed oo aan ahayn adke (solid matter) lagu maarayn karo shaybaarka hoostiisa.

Ma jiro waqti go’an oo la oran karo xilligaas ayey bilowdeen raadraacyadani, waxaase la sheegaa in uu bilowgeeda lahaa boqorkii Psammetichus oo ku beegan boqortooyadii lix iyo labaatanaad ee Reer Fircoon. Markase laga hadlayo asalkii afka, laba jid bay ku kala arooraan culimada af-aqoolku oo waxay kala qaateen laba marin oo kala ah: 1) Aragtida abuur-doonka (revolutionary paleoanthropologists) oo uu salkeedu yahay diimaha iyo maamiyada diimaha u janjeerta. 2) Aragtida abuur-diidka (evolutionary paleoanthropologists) oo iyadu ku abtirsata Charles Darwin, qabtana in ay wax waliba ku yimaaddeen kuna horumareen tadawur dabiici ah.

Laamaha af-aqoolka kuma jirto laan u fadhiidday sida ta lagu baaro asalkii afafka, mar waxayba gaartay heer laga diido golayaasha wax-barasho. Waxaa dhacdooyinkaas tusaale u ah in sannadkii 1866dii ay hay’adda lagu magacaabo “Bulshada Af-aqoolka Baariis” (Linguistic Society of Paris) ay gebi ahaanba irdaha ka xiratay wax kasta ee sal ku leh baadi-goobka curashadii afafka.

Aragtiyada abuur-doonka ah inkasta oo ay qirayaan in afku yahay abuur Alle haddana aragti kasta waxay hoosta ka xariiqdaa in asalka afka aadanuhu yahay kii ay ku soo degtay diintoodu ama ka ay ku hadasho hadba qowmiyadda uu qoraagaasu ka soo jeedo.

Aragtida Caliqeyr waxay raacaysaa laamaha abuur-doonka ah ee rumaysan in afku yahay abuur Eebbe. Dhanka kale, aragtiyadii hore waxay mudnaanta siin jireen daliilaha aragtida (theoretical evidence) ka dhigi kara maangal, waxayse ku wada fashilmeen daliilaha waaqiga ah (empirical evidence). Sababtaasi waa tan dhamaantood ku kulmisay magaca ah “Aragtiyada Male-Awaalka” ilaa ay gaaraan heer irdaha loo laabo. Maanta way yar tahay tixraac weyn oo aad laamahaan ka xigan karto.

Si taas ka beddelan, aragtida “Abtirsiinta Erayga” waxay uga duwan tahay wixii hore oo dhan shan qodob oo leh daliilo waaqici ah. Waxaa ka mid ah.-

  • Erayo tirsan oo uu qoraagu ku doodayo in ay yihiin salkii afafka. Isaga ka hor, ma jirto aragti la timid, sax ama khalad, erayo kooban iyo sal kulminaya afafka dadyowga.
  • Macne sugan oo ay erayadaasi leeyihiin. Macnaha qurubyadani (word particles), waxay kuu fasirayaan eray kasta afkii uu doonaba ha ahaadee.
  • Xeer kaabaya helitaanka 180kaas eray. Waa xeer ku jaango’an habdhismeedka qurubyada salka u ah afafka, sida uu qoraagu qabo.
  • Erayo isu dheelli-tiran. Waa erayo ka kooban 90 tabane ah iyo 90 togane ah oo warka isula dhisaya si isku miisaaman. Marka aad eegto habka erayadani isula falgelayaan iyo macnahoodaba waxaad arkaysaa dheellitir ka weyn maskaxda aadanaha, waana arrinka adkaynaya doodda qoraaga ee ah in afku yahay abuur Alle.
  • Dhawaqyada afafka aadanaha oo aanan sinnaba ugu dhex-bixi karin shaxda 180ka eray.

Sida aan arkayo daahfurkani ma keenin oo qura erayo sal u ah afafka aadanaha balse wuxuu la yimid macnahooda, xeerkooda iyo weliba daliilahooda. Waa arrin ka durugsan heerka ay

qorayaasha Soomaalidu kula dabaaqayaan oo ah in qormadu diiddan tahay xeerarkii af Soomaaliga ama in aanay xeerin lahjadaha aan ahayn maxaatiriga. Aad bay u kala fog yihiin waxa buuggu ka hadlayo iyo waxa ay qorayaashu ka dhigayaan dhaliil.

Gunaanad

“Xeerka Abtirsiinta Erayga” wuxuu marti u yahay cid kasta oo danaysa horumarinta afka, waana aragti bari-taaraysa cilmi-baarisyada afeed ee rumaysan jiritaanka Alle. Waxaan qabaa in arrinkaan dooddo lagala yeesho qoraaga, laga dalbo sharraxaad iyo caddeymo dheeraad ah, la geliyo xujo, mudnaantiisana la siiyo.

Marka laga yimaado qoristii far Soomaaliga waxaa xagga af Soomaaliga ku soo kordhay laba arrin oo qura oo lagu tilmaami karo daahfur cusub, midi waxay ahayd Miisaanka Maansada, aragtidaan lama siin mudnaan u dhiganta waxaana cuuryaamiyey is qabqabsi iyo isla sheegasho. Waxaanba oran karaa kobcinta iyo ka faa’iidaysiga “Miisaanka Maansada” waxaa ka tan badiyey kala jiidashadeeda.

Talaabadii xigtay ee la dhihi karo daahfur cusub waa “Abtirsiinta Erayga” oo afsoomaaliga ka sokow noqonaysa aragtidii u horreysay ee qof Afrikaan ahi ku biiriyo cilmi-baarisyada asalkii afka aadanaha. Isagu weliba wuxuu cilmi-baarisyadii hore dheeryahay shantii qodob ee daliilaha waaqiciga ah ee aan kor ku soo xusnay.

Dhanka kale, qoraagana waxaa looga baahan yahay in aanu aragtidaan uga harin qaanadaha maktabadaha balse uu raaciyo bandhigyo ama qormooyin kale oo kaabaya in la fahmo iyo in ay sii faafto. Ka cilmi-baare ahaan, aad ayey iiga daadegtay in daahfurkani yahay xaqiiq biya kama dhibcaan ah.

Aw Cabdiqani Xasan Muxumed
Qoraa iyo cilmi-baare afeed
Sweden, Stocholm
Email: [email protected]

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Tixraac

  1. Caliqeyr Muxumed Nuur. 2009. Abtirsiinta erayga afsoomaaliga. Sweden.
  2. Christine kenneally. 2008. First word: the search for the origins of language. London.
  3. Lepschy Giulio. 1994. History of Linguistics: the Eastern Traditions of Linguistics. London.
  4. Ibraahim Yuusuf Axmed “Hawd”. 2018. Buugga Abtirsiinta erayga af soomaaliga. www.weedhsan.net.2015. Xeerka Astaamaynta Qoraalka. Suradnews.com
  5. Abuukar Albadri. 2010. Af Soomaaligii oo Abtirsiimo loo helay: Qormo Faaqideysa Cilmi-baaris muhiim ah. www.somalitalk.com
  6. Cabdiraxmaan F. Barwaaqo. 2015. Xeerka Abtirsiga Erayada Iyo Sidaan u Arko. www.docslide.net.
  7. Yaasiin C. Keenadiid. 1976. Qaamuuska Af- soomaaliga. Muqdisho.
  8. Kwang Hyun Ko. 2016. The evolution and origin of human language: a biological perspective. Hanyang University Research.
  9. Mohammad Nehal and Mohammad Afza. 2012. Origin and Evolution of Human Language – A Brief Survey of Some Theories and Approaches. India.
  10. Mustafa Shah. 2011. Classical Islamic Discourse on the Origins of Language: Cultural Memory and the Defense of Orthodoxy. London.
  11. Cabdillaahi Diiriye Guuleed. 2003. Miisaanka Maansada Soomaaliyeed. Sweden.
  12. Georgi L. Kapchits. 2005. Sentence particles in the Somali language and their usage in proverbs. Moscow.

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