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Waa Kee Hannaanka Doorasho ee ku Habboon Baarlamanka Federalka Soomaaliya?

W.Q. Maxamuud Cabdillahi Axmed

Bishii Abril 18dii 2020, ayey Fowsiya Yuusuf X. Aadan ku faafisay WardheerNews maqaal qaylo-dhaan xambaarsan oo ay kaga digtay cawaaqib xumada nidaamka doorashada ee baarlamanka Dawladda Federalka Soomaaliya (DFS) uu aqlabiyadda ku ansixiyey 28kii bishii Disember 2019.

Nidaamkan la ansixiyey oo la yiraahdo hannaanka “aqlabiyadda hal-dheeriga ah” (single majority system), kaas oo laga soo kala dooranayo 275 deegaan doorasho (constituencies), deegaan kastana hal qof ka soo gelayo baarlamanka (one-member representative), xisbiyana ku tartamayaan, haddana ku salaysan habkii 4.5ka ee reeraha. Waa dhawr lakab oo is-dulsaaran oo sida loo kala furfurayo aad odhan karto waa madax daalis.

Kolkaa qormadani kala furfurka lakabyadaas way ka gaabsatay, laakiin waxay isku dayi bal inay kor ka xaadis ku samayso nidaamkan doorashada hal-dheeriga ah, kuna caan baxay magaca first-past-the-post (ugu horeeyaa guulaysta), in uu yahay mid ku habboon mujtamaceena iyo in kale.

Si aynu isula garano nidaamka doorashada hal-dheeriga ah, aan tusaale u soo qaadano hal deegaan doorasho oo 100 qof ka codeeyeen, kuna tartameen 4 murashax, kala heleena codadkan: A wuxu helay 24 cod, B wuxu helay 25 cod, C wuxu helay 23 cod, D wuxu helay 28 cod. Marka lagu kala baxayo nidaamka aqlabiyadda hal-dheeriga ah waxa kursiga baarlamanka ee deegaan doorashadaas ku guuleystay murashax D, waayo isagaa ka cod badan murashax kasta oo kale.

Ogow murashax D wuxu ku helay kursigii baarlamanka ee deegaan doorashadaas 28% codkii dadweynaha, laakiin 72% codka dadweynaha wuu lumiyey. Waxa khasaaray 72% codkii dadweynaha oo halkaa ku waayey cid metesha.

Murashax sidaa ku helay kursi baarlaman (28%), wuxu ku dambayn doonaa raaligelinta tirada yar ee soo dooratay, halkaas ayey daacadnimadiisu taalaa iyo naftiisa; taas oo ah isha musuq-maasuqa iyo kala erdhaynta mujtamaca.

Kolkaa su’aalo badan ayaa la iska weydiin karaa sida uu inoo anfici karo nidaamka noocan ahi, waayo waxa maanta aynu baahi weyn u qabnaa hab dawli ah oo dhammaan kooxaha bulshadu sida muraayadda iska wada dhex daawan karaan (inclusiveness). 

Sidaa darteed, inta aynaan qaadan hab nidaam doorasho waa in aynu sugno ujeeddada, ama qasadka, aynu ka leenahay hannaanka aynu baadi-goobka ugu jirno, markaas ayeynu heli marinkii loo raaci lahaa. 

Inta aynaan naaqishin ujeedada aynu ka leenahay hannaan doorasho, waxa ka horraysa in la gorfeeyo dhibaatooyinka bulsho iyo siyaasaddeed ee aynu daawada u raadinayno. Dhibka ugu weyn ee aynu xalka u raadinaynaa, sida ay aniga ila tahay, waa tafaraaruqa bulshadeena ragaadiyey iyo haya’ado siyaasaddeed oo itataaldaran, ama aan jirin ba. 

Halkaa waxa ka dheegmaya hannaanka doorasho ee aynu qaadanaynaa in uusan noqon mid reer-gashada (institutionalising) tafaraaruqa mujtamca, isla markaana u hiiliya xoojinta haya’adaha dawliga ah; murashaxana ka yeela qof daacadnimadiisu taalo haya’adaha siyaasadeed iyo kuwa madaniga ah sida xisbigiisa. 

Hannaanka doorasho ee hal-dheeriga ah (first-past-the-post) waxa ay taageerayaashiisu ku doodaan inuu soo saaro dawlad hal xisbi ka socota, xasilan (stable), oo aqlabiyad badan ku leh baarlamanka. Laakiin mar walba sidaa uma dhacdo; tusaale waxa kaaga filan doorashooynkii Ingiriiska ee 2010 (David Cameron) iyo 2017 (Theresa May), mid waliba xisbi kale taageeradiisa ayuu ku joogay.

Nidaamka doorasho ee barbar yaala nidaamkaa hal-dheeriga ahi waa hannaanka wakiilashada saamiga ah (proportional representation), kuna salaysan deegaan doorashada kuraasta badan (multi-seats constituency). Meel fog-ba ha ka dayin, doorashadii ka dhacday Somaliland 2005tii waxa lagu galay 6 deegaan doorasho – 6 gobol – oo gobol waliba loo qoondeeyey tiro kuraas ah oo go’an (sida Hargeysa 20 kursi, Togdheer 15, iwm). Kolkaa haddii xisbi kasbado 20% codka gobolka, waxa uu xisbigaasi heli 20% kuraasta gobolka loo qoondeeyey (waa saami toos ah). Cod khasaarayaana ma jiro.

Haddaba waxa aan qabaa in nidaamka “deegaan doorasho kuraas badan” uu yahay nooca doorasho ee ku habboon baarlamanka Dawladda Federalka Soomaaliya (DFS). Weliba waa in uu ahaado mid ku salaysan liiska xidhan (close list), taas oo macnaheedu yahay in murashixiintu mudnaanta u kala leeyihiin sida ay liiska xisbiga u kala horreeyeen. Haddii saamigu siiyey 4 kursi, waxa helaya 4-ta murashax ee magacoodu liiska xisbiga ugu korreeyey. 

Sida aan horeba u tibaaxay, waxa wacan nidaaamka doorasho ee la qaadanayaa in uu raali-geliyo halbeegyadan (ugu yaraan afar ka mid ah): (1) yareeyo tafaraaruqa bulshada ee ku salaysan abtirsiinta, (2) xoojiyo haya’adaha siyaasaddeed ee dawliga ah iyo kuwo madaniga ah ee casriga ah (sida ururada shaqaalaha iyo xisbiyada), (3) la helo dawlad iyo baarlaman bulshadu iska wada arki karto, (4) xildhibaan waliba  xiriir la leeyahay deegaano mucayin ah; (5) iyo dawlad xasilan oo aan sahal loo gilgili karin. 

Waxa aan qabaa in nidaamka wakiilashada saamiga ah (proportional representation) oo ku salaysan liiska xidhan ee xisbiyada iyo deegaan doorashada kuraasta badan (multi-seats constituency) ee heer maamul-goboleed (federal state) uu raaligelinayo, si xooggan, 4ta halbeeg ee ugu horeeya taxa kore. Waxa uu daciif ku yahay keliya midka 5aad, kaasna daawadiisu waa in la sharciyeeyo in dawlad lagu soo dhisi karo uun, laguna ridi karo aqlabiyadda 2/3aad (two-third majority), isla markaana xisbi waliba noqdo xisbi qaran (macnihii ku tartamo kuraasta maamul goboleedyada waddanka oo dhan). 

Haddii 5-taas minqiyaas ee kore lagu miisaan-beego hannaanka doorasho ee aqlabiyadda hal-dheeriga ah, waxa uu raaligelin karaa keliya qoddobka 4aad iyo mararka qaar qodobka 5aad. Runtii wuxu suurageliyaa in xildhibaanku xiriir toos ah la yeesho deegaankii laga soo doortay, laakiin wuxu cidleeyey saddexda halbeeg ee kale; waxaanu horseedayaa musuq iyo kala erdhow bulsho. 

Nidaamka sidaa u daciifka ah ayaa, haddana, baarlamanka DFS sii dulsaaray lakabyo kale oo aan baahi loo qabaa ba jirin. Ka dhigan hal-hayskii caruurta “jinni jinni saaran, jinni kale saaran, jalalawda haya, jar ka boodahaya”. 

Gar bay noqotay in xildhibaan Fowsiya Yuusuf X. Aadan ay sida fiinta uga qayliso, kana digto cawaaqib xumada uu ina dhaxalsiin karo hannaanka doorasho ee baarlamanka Soomaaliya. 

Wa Bilaahi Towfiiq

Maxamuud Cabdillahi Axmed

Email: [email protected]


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