Tuesday, August 20, 2019
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Shirkadaha Shidaalka iyo Soomaaliya

Prof. Cabdulqaadir Abiikar Xuseen

Ku dhowaad 70 sano ayaa Soomaaliya laga baarayaa shidaal. Shirkado caalami ah, oo laga lee yahay waddamada Maraykanka, Netherlands (Holland), Talyaaniga, Fransiiska, Ingiriiska iyo Jarmalku, ka baareen barri iyo bad.

Baritaankaas waxaa loo kala qaybin karaa sidan:

1. Baaritaankii Hore (Dhammaad kii 1950 – 1990)

Baaritaanadii hore waxay u badnaayeen dhinaca berriga, inkasta oo meelo kooban oo Gacanka Cadmeed ee Waqooyiga, Badda Indian Ocean- ka ee Waqooyi Bari iyo Badda Benadir  la baaray. Hawsha xooggeeda waxaa sameeyay sannadihii ugu horreeyay  shirkadahii Sinclair (Amerada + Marathon + Conoco). Agip, Shell ama Pectin iyo Elf (Talyaani, Netherlands iyo Faransiis).

Laga billaabo 1970-1990 waddanka waxaa si mug leh ka shaqeeyay, Esso, Texaco, Mobil, Phillips, Deutch-Texaco, Amoco oo dhammaantood u xuub-siibtay magacyo cusub sida Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, BP, Shell iyo ENI.

Hawsha baarista natiijo fiican laga ma helin. Markii loogu dhawaa ayaa shidaal ama Gaas aan ganacsi gali karin la helay. Sida kale baaristaas wax micne leh kama soo bixin. Shirkadihii waxaa u suurta gashay in la fahmo sida lakabyada dhagaxda iyo hab-dhiskooda yahay. Waxaa kale oo la bartay dhagaxa shidaalka sameeya ama dhala, iyo qaab-dhismeedka uu ku aruri karo iyo dhagaxda shidaalka kaydin kara meelaha ay kala yaalaan dhulka gudahiisa. Dadaalladaas waxaa lagu ogaaday hadda meelaha bar-tilmaameedyo laga dhigi karo marka shidaalka la qodayo – khaasatan dhagaxa kaydin kara shidaalka meelaha ay yaallaan, marka laga fiiriyo dhanka  da’da Jurassic, Cretaceous iyo Tertiary ga. 

2. Baaritaankii Dhexe (1991-2012)

Muddadaan waa goortii burburka Dowladii Soomaaliya, markii shirkado si gooni-gooni ah ula galeen heshiisyo maamul-goboleedyada markaa jiray sida Somaliland, Puntland iyo Galmudug -tii hore. Dhinaca Somaliland waxaa ka hawl-galay Ophir Petroleum, Petrosoma, DNO, iyo Genel . Shirkadaha qaar illaa maanta way joogaan inkastoo maal-gelin tooda ay la baqayaan. Qaarna waxay sammeeyay sahanka 2-D saysmik.

Dhinaca Puntland, waxaa heshiis la galay Range Resources, oo markii dambe Farm-in u oggolaatay Africa Oil iyo Horn Petroleum oo qaab wadaag (Joint Venture) ku ahaa inay wada shaqeeyaan. Africa Oil waxay qodday labo ceel oo shidaal laga waayay oo ku yaal Dooxada Dharoor. Hawshaan waxay ahayd isku-day aad u fiican oo ay Puntland sammaysay; shirkadda Africa Oil waxay muujisay inay tahay shirkad shaqada loogu talo galay qabatay.  Africa Oil hadda waxay ka shaqaysaa Ethiopia iyo Kenya.

Dhanka kale, Galmudug- tii hore waxay heshiis la gashay Liberty Petroleum (Petro Quest) inay baarto berri iyo bad Galmudug. Shirkaddaas uma gudbin inay sammayso sahanka 2-D saysmikada ama qodid. Waxay Liberty weli raadinaysaa inay DFS siiso Heshiiska Soo-saar Wadaagga (PSA) la saxiixato, inkastoo ay kula jirto Galmudug -tii hore iyo Galmudug -ta hadda ah heshiis qoran oo ah inay DFS tixgeliso. Heshiis kaas waxa u baahan yahay in lala jaan-qaadsiiyo PSA ga Soomaaliya.

3. Shaqada cusub ee badda: 2013 -hadda

Markii Dawladda Federaalka ka baxday Ku Meelgaarnimada, oo aqoonsi buuxda heshay , ayaa Soma Oil and Gas la saxiixatay heshiis ah inay maalgeliso baarista saysmikada ee 2-D ee Badda Indian Ocean-ka Soomaaliya; shirkaddaasna loo oggolaado in heshiis PSA lagula galo 12 Xirmo-badeed (12 Offshore blocks) ah. Soma Oil and Gas, waxaa u sammeeyay sahanka 2-D shirkado sub-contract ah oo kala ah SeaBird Exploration, Spectrum iyo RPS Group.

Dhinaca kale, Shirkadaha Shell, ExxonMobil iyo Total waxay aad u xiiseenayeen badda Soomaaliya, waxayna ka dalbadeen Spectrum inay buuxiso shabakaddii 2-D ee Soma Oil oo ahaa 20 x 20 km kal-fogaansho (spacing) in laga dhigo 10 x 10 km kala-fogaansho (spacing) iyo in lagu daro baarista biyaha aan moolka ahayn oo ballacoodu yahay 12 nautical mile.  Spectrum 2016 ayay hawshaas dhammaysay.

Sidaas waxaa ku dhammays tirmay baarista badda Jubbaland, Koonfur Galbeed, Gobolka Benadir, Hirshabeelle iyo Galmudug.  Waxaan baaris illaa hadda laga sammaynin badaha Puntland iyo Somaliland. Waxaan ogahay badda Somaliland qeyb ka mid ah inay baartay TGS oo dhawaan gadatay Spectrum. Labada shirkadood waa shirkado sammeeya 2-D saysmikis oo Norway laga lee yahay.

Shirkadaha danaynaya badda Soomaaliya inay shidaal ka soo saaraan: Shirkadahaan waxaa ka mid ah kuwa waaweyn, kuwa dhexaad ah iyo kuwa yaryar.  Kuwa waaweyn waa Shell, ExxonMobil, Total, ENI, BP iyo Equinor.

Shirkadaha dhexe waxaa ka mid ah: ONGC,  Anadarco, Apache iyo Tullow. Shirkadaha yar-yarka ah inta badan waa shirkado carcar (aggressive) ah oo dhaqso wax soo saara ama raba inay shirkad kale ku wareejiyaan hawsha, dhexda ka faa’idaan (Asset flippers).

Shirkadaha yar-yarka ah qaabka ay heshiiska ku galaan ayaa musuqmaasuq iyo daah-furnaan la’aan hareeraysaa, halka shirkadaha waaweyn ee u naxa sumcadooda iyo suuqa ay ka diiwaan-gashan  yihiin – bursa ama stock market.

Shirkadaha yaryarka ee Soomaaliya jooga waxaa ka mid ah Soma Oil and Gas, Liberty Petroleum iyo Genel Energy (Somaliland). Africa Oil way ka baxday Puntland, inkastoo la rabay Dooxada Nugaal inay ceel qodid ka bilowdo.

Caqabadaha hor taagan shirkadaha:

Waxaa ugu horraysa amni darrada, sharciyada iyo xeerarka nidaaminta shidaalka oo aan fadhinin oo isbaddelo joogto ah ku dhaca, xasilooni-darro siyaasadeed, xasarradaha siyaasadeed oo joogto noqday, daah-furnaan yarida iyo musuq-maasuq baahsan.

Caqabadahaa oo runtii saamayn xoog leh ku yeeshay shirkadihii maal-gelin lahaa oo hormarin lahaa shidaalka Soomaaliya. Tusaale waxaa noo ah in Shell-ExxonMobil (oo heshiis Soomaaliya kula jira) ay weli aaminsan yihiin Somalia inay ka jirto xaaladda Force Majeure, oo aan shaqo laga dhex qaban karin.

Arrimahaas kor ku qoran, waa in DFS u heshaa xal iyo inay ka shaqo gasho sida loo beddeli lahaa iyo sidii wax looga qaban lahaa. Waxaa aad muhiim u ah inay isla jaan-qaadaan DFS iyo maamul-goboleedyada xubnaha ka ah Federaalka Soomaaliya.

Caqabadda kale ayaa ah in tamarta shidaalka laga gudbi rabo, ka dib markay sabab u noqotay in cimillada adduunyada is-bedesho iyo heerkulka dunida kordho. Dunida waxay gashay dadaal cusub oo dhanka tamarta qorraxda iyo dabeysha lagu hormarinayo.

Waxaa si xawaare leh u soo kordhaya teknoolojiyada tamarta qoraxda, dabeesha iyo niyuukliirka looga faa’idaysan lahaa. Tusaale ahaan Bangiga Adduunka waa u joojiyay maal-gelinta shirkadaha shidaalka sahmiya oo soo saara, laga billaabo 2020 ka. Sidaas awgeed,  Soomaaliya waxay haysataa waqti yar oo ay kaga faaidaysan karto shidaalka.

Prof. Cabdulqaadir Abiikar Xuseen
Email: [email protected]
Hormuudka Kulliyadda Cilmiga Dhulka iyo Deegaanka/Bii’ada
Jaamacadda Benadir, Muqdisho, SOMALIA


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