Wednesday, February 26, 2020
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QARNI KADDIB DUULAANKII INGIRIISKA 
& DUQAYNTII XARUMAHA DARAAWIISHTA

Qaybtii 1aad

W. Q. Mustafa Fayruus

Dhaqdhaqaaqii Daraawiishta iyo Boqortooyadii Ingiriiska waxaa dhexmaray dagaallo socday in ka badan labaatan sanno, loona yaqaan “Anglo-Somali War”“Dervish War”.ama “Somaliland Campaign”.

Qoraalkani waa dulmar kooban oo aan ku samaynayno duulaankii ugu dambeeyay dagaalladaa, waayihii ku xeerna ee saamaynta ku lahaa iyo siduu ku dhammaaday. Waa duulaanka ay Boqortooyada Ingiriisku ku soo afjartay Dhaqdhaqaaqii Daraawiishta ee jiray 1898-1920, jiif iyo joogna u diiday muddadaa! Xilligan waxaa laga joogaa muddo hal qarni ah.

1. Kobocii & Fiditaankii Daraawiishta

Inkasta oo dhowrkii sanno ee ugu dambeeyay uu soo kordhayay dareenka Ingiriisku ka qabo wadaadkan cusub ee Maxmiyadda soo galay, ee ay ku naanayseen “Mad Mullah”; haddana, waxay ahayd bilowgii 1899 markuu Ingiriisku ku baraarugay in Sayid Maxamed unkay halgan hubaysan, garawsadayna khatarta ka soo fool leh, xoog iyo xeeladna isugu geeyay siduu Daraawiishta uga takhallusi lahaa umase suurtagelin.

Taasi waxaa u raacay jabkii foosha xumaa ee uu kala hoyday dagaalkii Ruuga, ama Dulmadoobe, ee lagaga dilay sarkaalkii Koofil (Richard Corfield) oo dhacay Agoosto 1913.

Iyadoo halkaa arrini marayo, waxaa dunida ka dillaacay Dagaalkii Dunida ee Koowaad “DD1” ee socday 1914-1918, oo Ingiriis iyo Talyaaniba ku mashquuleen, kana mashquuleen Daraawiishta.

Waxaa inta ka horreeyay, oo isna saameyntiisa lahaa, heshiiskii Ilig ee Maarso 1905 dhexmaray Ingiriiska, Talyaaniga iyo Daraawiishta. Heshiiskani wuxuu Daraawiish u ogolaanayay inay ka taliyaan dooxada Nugaaleed ilaa badda dhulka u dhexeeya labada saldanadood ee Hobyo iyo Majeerteen.(1)

Taasi waxay dhashay in Daraawiishtii ku fido dhul ballaaran oo gudaha ah, kana taabbageliso saldanaddooda “Dervish State” oo ku baahsan laga soo bilaabo degaannada Maakhir (Sanaag), Eyl, Wardheer iyo Qorraxey, ilaa Hiiraan (BeledWeyne); kana dhisato xarumo iyo qalcado adag.

2. Xaaladda oo Daraawiish ku Foorarsatay

Waa duni iyo caadkeede, lix sanno gudahood ayay cajaladdu wareegtay. Sannadkii 1919, xaaladihii Daraawiishta gudaheeda iyo hareeraheeda ka jiray, heer Soomaaliyeed, heer gobol iyo heer caalamiba, waxay noqdeen kuwo ku foorara Daraawiishta. 

Dagaalkii Dunida ee koowaad DD1 waxaa ku guulaystay garabkii Isbahaysiga “Allied Powers” oo Ingiriiska & Talyaanigu ka mid ahaayeen, waxaa lagaga adkaaday imbaraadooriyadihii “Central Powers” oo ay ka mid ahaayeen Turkiga & Jarmalka oo Daraawiishtu gacansaar la lahayd.

Waxaa ka horeeyay boqriddii dhicisowday ee Lij Iyasu, oo xukunka laga tuuray 1916. Taas oo Abasiiniya (Itoobiya) dhaxashiinaysay inay Daraawiishta, oo awalba colaadi kala dhexaysay, ku eegto il shaki iyo feejignaan dheeraad ah leh.

Xabbadda ayaa isugu jirta Daraawiishta oo dhinac ah iyo “Ingiriiska, Talyaaniga & Abasiiniya” oo dhinac ah; badda ka shishena waxaa ka taliya dawlado ay Ingiriiska isbahaysi leeyihiin, Daraawiishtuna ayna saaxiib ku lahayn.

Ku darsoo, Daraawiishta waxay colloobeen badiba qabaa`ilkii iyo saldanadaha Soomaaliyeed ee ku xeernaa. Waxay gaareen inaan midkoodna midka kale bixin.(2)

Daraawiishta dhexdeeda waxaa ku fiday in qofkii laga shakiyaba la yiraahdo wuu “XUJOOBAY”, dad fara badan ayaana sidaa lagu laayay. Sayidku wuxuu samaystay ilaalo si gaar ah loo soo xulay. Arrintan “Xujoobiddu” kalsoonidarro iyo niyadjab xoog leh ayay Daraawiishta ku riday.(3)

Xaaladda niyadjabku halkay maraysay sannadkii 1919, waxa uu Aw Jaamac ku sifeeyay sidan: “… Daraawiishtu markaa ma niyad fiicnayn, maxaa wacay dagaalkiina waa ku dheeraaday, dadkii Dariiqada [Daraawiishta] lagu laynayeyna waa ka calool xumaadeen, waxna markay xaruntii [Daraawiishta] naceen oo joogi waayeen waa isaga tageen, sidaa daraadeed ayaa inta joogtaana aanay ammintaa u niyad samayn, inkastoo ayan gaalo rabin.” [Taariikhda Daraawiishta (1976), b. 269].

Waxaa intaa u raacay in dhulkii Daraawiish deganayd kala dheeraaday, taasoo wiiqaysay hoggaamintii iyo iska warhayntii dhexdooda ahayd. Bal qiyaas sida loo hagi karo ciidan kala degan Mirashi [Ceerigaabo agteeda], Eyl, Beledweyne iyo Qorraxey.

Guud ahaan, xaaladdu ma ahayn mid u hiillinaysa Daraawiishta. 

3. Diyaargarawgii Ciidan ee Ingiriiska

Boqortooyadii Ingiriiska, oo ahayd awoodda dunida ugu weyn, waxay isu taagtay inay soo afjarto halganka Daraawiishta ee labaatan jirsaday. Sannadka 1919, Ingiriisku wuxuu ku hawlanaa isku dubbaridka duulaan uu ku qaado Daraawiishta.

Boqortooyada Ingiriisku waxay DD1 dhisatay awood ciidan oo xoog leh, oo ay ka mid yihiin Ciidanka Cirka Boqortooyadu. Xoghayihii Mustacmaraatka Lord Milner wuxuu is tusay in awooddaa looga faa`iidaysto xoojinta awooddii maamul ee boqortooyadu ku lahayd mustacmaraadka ay gumaysato. Wuxuu goostay inuu ku bilaabo soo afjaridda kacdoonka Daraawiishta ee Ingiriiska ku rafanayay labaatanka sanno, isagoo adeegsanaya Ciidanka Cirka Boqortooyada “Royal Air Force-RAF”. (4)

Xilligaa, RAF waa ciidanka cirka ee dunida ugu awoodda badan. Waxay ku naaloonayaan wacdarihii ay ka dhigeen DD1 iyo dhirbaaxooyinkii ay afartii bilood ee dambeeyay dagaalka, Aug–Nov 1918, ku dhufteen isbahaysigii ka soo horjeeday, taasi oo si degdeg ah DD1 u soo afjartay. Waa ciidan cusub la aasaasay April 1918, carcartiisa qaba, jecelna inuu muujiyo kartidiisa.

Shirar iyo wadatashiyo ay wada qaateen xafiisyada ay khusaysaa 1919 ayay ku goosteen inay qaadaan hawlgal ballaaran oo ka dhan ah Daraawiishta… hawlgal xoog leh oo isugu jira cirka, badda iyo dhulka. 

Waxaa lafdhabar u ah unug ciidanka cirka ah “ Z Force” oo ku hubaysan 12 diyaaradood oo Masar laga keenay, waxa taakulaynaya 3 markab, iyo guutooyin ciidammada dhulka oo ka kala tirsan Ciidanka Rakuubleyda “Somaliland Camel Corps” iyo Ciidankii Bariga Afrika ee “King’s African Rifles”.

Ciidankani halwgal ayuu diyaar u ahaa Janaayo 1920.

4. Abaabulkii Soomaalida

Sidaan hore u tilmaannay, wax arxan ahi kama dhexayn Daraawiishta iyo Soomaalida ku xeeran. Sidaas darteed, Ingiriisku wuxuu weysada u biyaystay siduu uga dhex ugaarsan lahaa xiriirkan aadka u xun; wuxuuna bilaabay inuu dadweynaha ku kiciyo Daraawiishta, kuna boorriyo inayna dhac iyo boob u kala reebin.

Xaakimkii Ingiriiska ee Maxmiyaddu wuxuu 30/12/1919 qoray warqad Soomalida lagu guubaabinayo inay ciribtiraan Daraawiishta, dhac iyo boobna kula kacaan. 

Maalintii duqayntu bilaabatay 21/1/1920, waxaa barbar socday warqad lagu daadiyay goobo badan, oo Ingiriisku uu ku ballanqaadayo inuu abaalgud lacageed siinayo ciddii soo disha ama soo qabata ama keenta xog lagu soo qabto madaxda Daraawiiishta.

Warqaddan waxaa ku qornaa liiska 16 qof ah oo madaxda Daraawiishta ah oo uu Sayid Maxamed ugu horreeyo, abaalgudka lagu bixinayana u dhexeeyo min 5000 ilaa 250 Rubbiyadood; halka carruurta Sayidku dhalay oo qiyaastii ah ilaa 20 qof kiiba lagu bixinayo abaalgud ah 100 Rubbiyadood.

Sidoo kale, dadkii Daraawiishta ahaan jiray ee hore uga soo goostay, xirribta iyo tabahay ku dagaal gashana yaqaanay, waxay gadhwadeen u noqdeen ciidanka Ingiriiska ee duulaanka dhulka. [Taariikhda Daraawiisha. b. 276]

5. Hub Cusub & Dagaal Ballaaran 

Janaayo 1920, Ingiriiska diyaar bay ka ahaayeen ciidanka iyo agabkiisii oo markan diyaaraduhu lafdhabar ka yihiin. Waxaa loo diyaariyay in dagaal socda 12 bilood ay ku soo afjaraan Daraawiishta.

Daraawiishtu wax war ah kama hayso abaabulka iyo diyaargarowga socda, Ingiriisku wuu ka ilaaliyay in warku gaaro. Safarradii dhanka Daraawiishta u kacayay waa la joojiyay, Daraawiishina hore ayay dhankeeda u xakamaysay ama joojisay.

Sidaas darteed, Daraawiish oo iska baraad la` ayaa ku war helay wax dul haadaya oo duqaynaya xaruntii Mirashi!! 

Waa maalin Arbaco ah, waagu wuxuu beryay dhiillo la`aan. Xarunta Daraawiishtu waa Mirashi, u dhow Ceerigaabo. Sayid Maxamed iyo boqolaal Daraawiish ah oo fadhiya goob daar laga dhisayay ayaa duqayntii ugu horeysay lagu bilaabay 21/1/1920. Sayidku faro ciddi leh ayuu kaga badbaaday Bamkii ugu horreeyay. La taliyihiisii Axmed Cali, oo Turkigu u soo diray, ayaa yiri “Sayidii dayuurad weeyee meesha innaga kici….”

Sayidka iyo intii u dhowayd waxay ku carareen daartii la dhisayay. Markay isku aamini waayeenna waxay galeen godka “Xeela”, deedna habeenkii ayay xagaa iyo xaruntii Taleex u dhaqaaqeen.

Diyaaraduhu saddex maalmood, 21-23/1/1920, ayay duqaynayeen qalcadihii ku teedsana buuraleyda Surad ee Mirashi, Jiidali, Baran iyo Galbaribuur. Daraawiishi inay isaga baxaan ayay dani yeelsiisay, waxayna ku ballameen inay Taleex isugu tagaan… 

Sayidku wuxuu Taleex gaaray 2 ama 3 Febraayo, diyaaraduhuna waxay duqayn ku bilaabeen Arbacadii 4 Febraayo, maalintii xigtayna hareerayn iyo weerar dhul ah ayaa laysugu daray, Sayidkuna si dhuumasho ah ayuu kaga baxay. Xaruntii Taleex gacan Ingiriis ayay gashay maalmo kaddib.

Goobaha Daraawiish wacdaraha ay ka muujiyeen waxaa ka mid ahaa qalcaddii Galbaribuur oo laga ilaalinayay Xiis & Maydh, inkasta oo diyaaraduhu duqaynayeen, haddana ciidankii maraakiibta lagu keenay sahal kuma loodin. Weerarkii Mirashi ee 21/1/1920, diyaaradaha wareeggii labaad ayay Daraawiishtu rasaas ku rideen. Diyaarad ayaa ku dhacday Ceeldheer, qiyaastii 30 km u jirta Ceerigaabo. Daraawiishtu waxay rumaysnaayeen in diyaaraddaasi u dhacday dhaawacii ay rasaastoodu u gaysatay, Ingiriiskuse wuxuu ku sheegay cillad mishiinka ah.

Awoodda ciidan wax lays barbardhigi karo maaha. Waxaa weerarka soo qaaday imbaradooriyaddii aan qorraxdu ka dhacayn, leh ciidanka ugu awoodda badan dunida, leh ciidanka cirka ee soo jebiyay dawlado waaweyn, kuna naaloonaya guushuu ka soo hooyay DD1. Waxay ku soo duulaan tageen hubkii ugu casrisanaa xilligaa; waa hub dhowr sanno keliya jira; hore looguma adeegsan kacdoon aan dawlad weyn ahayn.

Hubkani waa diyaaradaha dagaalka! Waa tiknoloojiyad ku cusub dunida. Daraawiishi arag iska daaye hore uma maqal!!

Sida muuqata, duqaynta diyaaradaha, bamka ay ridaysay waxaa ka darnaa argagixii ay beertay. Dad iyo xoolaba way dideen. Wax haadaya, oo guux weyn, oo dusha ka duqaynaya.

Daraawiish waxaa isugu darsamay dagaalkan baaxadda leh ee aysan filayn, hubkan cusub ee argagaxa leh ee aysan aqoon, niyadjabkii gudaha ee hore ugu habsaday, iyo Soomaalida ku xeeran ee aan bixinayn.

Talo farahay ka baxday! “Welwel iyo cabsi baa eebbe ku riday. Nin waliba harkiisii buu ka diday, ama haadkii buu ka cararay.” [Taariikhda Daraawiishta, b. 271]

Daraawiish badani naftooday la carareen, qofba meeshuu miciin biday ayuu afka saaray. Arbacadii duqaynta ugu horeysay habeenkeediiba xaruntii waxaa ka tegey rag badan oo madaxdii Daraawiishta ka mid ahaa, kuwa ugu magaca dheeraa waxaa ka mid ahaa abaanduulihii weynaa ee Ismaaciil Mire.

Dhinaca kale, dagaalka waxaa ku dhintay tiro madaxdii abaanduulka ah. Markii Taleex laga baxay abaanduulayaashii dhintay waxaa ugu muuqdey Xaaji Suudi Shabeel oo gacantiisa midig ahaa iyo Ibraahim Buqul.

Xarumihii Sanaag iyo Nugaalba Daraawiish waa laga qabsaday.

Tilmaamo

1) Saldanadda Mejeerteen, Xarunteedu waxay ahayd Caluula/Baargaal, waxaa ka madax ahaa Boqor Cismaan Maxamuud. Saldanadda Hobyo, oo xarunteedu Hobyo ahayd, waxaa madax ka ahaa Suldaan Cali Yuusuf Keenadiid.

2) Daraawiish iyo Soomaalida kale waxaa kala gaaray waxaan yarayn, oo dil iyo dhacba leh, waana arrin mudan in si dheellitiran oo “mawduuci” ah loo darso, loogana baaraandego. Qoraalkani arrintaa uma banbaxayo, wuxuu tilmaamayaa oo keliya saamaynta ay duulaankan iyo jebintii Daraawiishta ku yeelatay.

3) Waxyaabaha niyadjabka “Xujoobidda” ka dhashay sii weyneeyay waxaa kale oo ka mid ahaa: sababaha lagu xujoobayo oo iska fududaa, iyo silicdilyayn iyo arxandarro wehelisay dilalka qarkood.

4) Markii qorshahan adeegsiga diyaaradaha dagaalku ka lib keenay kacdoonkii Daraawiishta, waxa Ingiriisku uga faa`iidaystay meelaha kale ee kacdoonnadu ka jireen, waxaana ugu horreeyay dalka Ciraaq.

La soco qaybta 2aad

W.Q. Mustafa Fayruus
Email: [email protected]

Mustafa Fayruus waa qoraa, cilmibaare iyo bare jaamacadeed ka tirsan xarumo cilmiyeed dhowr ah.


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