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Cudurka Wuhan Fayras (Wuhan novel coronavirus Infection)

W.Q. Dr Yasiin Cabdi

Wuhan coronavirus waa fayras cusub oo ugub ah (a new novel coronavirus, nCov) waxana lagu magacaabi karaa si ku meel gaadh ah “Wuhan novel coronavirus (WN-CoV)” in kastoo WHO (Laanta Caafimaadka Adduunka) ku talisay in la odhan karo 2019-nCoV (n is for novel, CoV is for coronavirus).  Haddaba, si aan wax uga ogaanno fayraskan cusub waxan si guudmar ah qoraalkan soo socda  ugu eegi doonnaa WN-CoV, cudurka WN-CoV, sifooyinka iyo marxaladaha kala duwan ee cudurka WN-CoV,  halistiisa,  siyaabaha looga hortagi karo iyo tallaabooyinka shakhsigu ama qofku isku ilaalin karo. 

WN-CoV waa fayras  sababa cudur (infection) leh astaamo u eg kuwa xanuunka Jeeni-wareenka ama Oof-wareenka (Pneumonia). Cudurkan ayaa horraantii bishii Disember 2019 ka dillaacay oo markii ugu horreysay lagu arkay magaalada Wuhan, gobolka Hubei ee dalka Shiinaha. Waxa cudurka u dhintay ilaa imminka dad tiradoodu gaadhayso 908 qof, waxaana uu ku dhacay in ka badan 40,000. Welina waa sii fidayaa waxaana laga cabsi qabaa inuu ku faafo oo gaadho  adduunka oo dhan, in kastoo ay dawladda Shiinuhu ku dedaalayso inay xakamayso fidista fayraskan cusub sida ugu dhakhsaha badan. Waxa uu gaadhay  ilaa hadda 27 dal oo u badan Asia iyo Yurub waxaana uu ku dhacay dad gaadhaya 387 qof iyo 2 dhimasho ah. 

Cudurka WN-CoV waxa uu adduunka dib u soo xusuusiyey cabsidii iyo argagixii laga qaaday cudurka SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) ee ka dillaacay dalka Shiinaha bishii  November 2002. Kaas oo sababay dhimasho badan isla markaana dhaawac laxaad leh u geystay dhaqaalaha Shiinaha iyo adduunka. Waxa sidoo kale weli sii qoyan khatartii uu dunida gelin gaadhay cudurka Ebola fayras (Ebola virus infection) iyo baqdintii laga qaaday cudurkii Zika fayras (Zika virus infection) ee ka dillaacay Brazil 2015.

Khatarta weyn ee hadda ugu dhakhsaha badani waxay u muuqataa in fayraskani yahay mid halis ah oo weliba u eg inuu faafayo ama fidayo. Waxa laga cabsi qabaa in dawladda Shiinuhu xakamayn kari weydo oo uu ku faafi karo caalamka oo dhan. Halista  caafimaad ee uu sababay waa Oof-wareen aad u ba’an ama u daran (severe  Pneumonia) oo aan la daaweyn karayn. Sababtoo ah waa Viral Pneumonia, daawooyinka antibioticska ahina waxba kama taraan mana jiraan ilaa imminka wax daawooyin khaas ah (antiviral drugs) oo cudurrada ay sababaan coronaviruses lagu daaweyn karo.

20kii bishii Janaayo 2020, waxa la xaqiijiyey inuu cudurka WN-CoV ku dhacay 14 ka mid ah shaqaalaha caafimaadka ee daaweynaayey dadka bukaanka ah ee la isha darnaa cudurka WN-CoV. Tani waxay ahayd caddeyntii ugu horreysay ee cad oo muujinaysa in  cudurku ku faafi karo  ama u kala gudbi karo qof ilaa qof (human to human transmission). Sidaas awgeedna,  uu aad ugu sii faafi karo oo sababi karo ama keeni karo  Saf caam ah ama cudur dunida oo dhan saameeya ama badankooda gaadha (Global Pandemic). 

Wuhan coronavirus, wuxu asal  ahaan ka yimid gudaha suuqa kalluunka ee Wuhan Huanan Haixian Pifa Shichang ee magaalada Wuhan. Suuqan ayaa ah mid caadi ahaan jumlo (wholesale) ahaan ugu iibiya kalluunka iyo cuntooyinka kale ee badda laga helo laakiin waxa lagu eedeeyey ka ganacsiga xayawaannada nool oo u badan duurjoog. Caadi ahaan ilaa iyo inta la og yahay coronaviruses waxa ay dadku ka qaadaan xayawaanka, sababtoo ah coronaviruses waa fayrasyada xayawaanka (animal viruses). Sidaas darteed, waxa la aaminsan yahay isla markaana xaqiiqooyinka ilaa hadda la hayaa muujinayaan in WN-CoV infection laga qaaday mid ka mid ah xayawannada lagu iibinayey suuqa  Wuhan Huanan.

Fayraska  Corona (Coronavirus)

Fayrasyada corona (coronaviruses) waa qoys ballaadhan (family)  oo ka kooban afar duul (genera) oo kala ah: Alpha-coronavirusBeta-coronavirus, Gamma-coronavirus iyo Delta-coronavirus. Waa fayrasyada leh acid bu’eedka RNA (RNA virus) waxaa markii ugu horreysay la aqoonsadey 1960-yadii, laakiin ilaa imminka lama garanaayo halka ay ka yimaadeen asal ahaan. Magacooda corona waxa loogu bixiyey ama loogu magacdaray qaab muuqaaleedka dhiskooda oo u eg goobo iftiin ah oo qorraxda ku wareegsan ama qaab muuqaaleedkoodu wuxu shabbahaa oo u eg yahay taajka (crown). 

Cudurrada  ay sababaan  coronaviruses

 Fayraska CoV waxa lagu yaqaan oo la ogyahay inuu waxyeello caafimaad u geytso xayawaanno kala duwan oo ay ku jiraan shimbiro iyo naasley (mammals). Waxa kale oo uu ka mid yahay fayrasyada u kala gudba dadka iyo xayawaanka. Sidaas  awgeedna, waxay sababaan ama keenaan cudurrada  dadka  iyo xayawaanka u kala gudba ama ay dadku ka qaadaan cudurrada xayawaanka (Zoonotic infections). Cudurrada ay keenaan waxa ugu badan hargabka ama durayga caadiga ah (common cold) oo dhibtiisa iyo halistiisu yar tahay. Marka la eego waxyeellada iyo halista caafimaad ee lala xidhiidhinaayo fayrasyadan, waa 3 cudur oo aad isugu dhow oo uu cudurka Wuhan fayras (WN-CoV infection) ka mid yahay. Waxa ka mid ah cudurrada ay coronaviruses sababaan cudurka SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV oo ka dillaacay  Shiinaha Nov 2002 – Jul 2003 iyo cudurka MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) oo ka dillaacay Saudi Arabia 2012 ilaa iyo haddana weli  dadka  ku dhaca. 

Cudurka Wuhan fayras (WN-CoV Infection)

Cudurka uu sababo WN-CoV fayras waxa lagu magacabaa “Acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus” ama viral pneumonia. Wuhan-CoV oo ah fayras ugub ah sidaan hore u soo sheegnay wuxu sababay cudur ku dhaca marinka neefsashada kaas oo ka dillaacay magaalada Wuhan ee waddanka Shiinaha. Ilaa imminka waa loo dhimanayaa, la qaadayaa, sii fidayaa wuxuuna gaadhay dalal badan.

In kastoo ay kooban yihiin macluumaadka sheegaya sida Wuhan fayras uu u sababo ama u keeno cudurka (pathogenetic process), haddana waxa la aamminsan yahay inay la mid tahay sida fayrasyada kale ee ay isku bahda yihiin ee coronaviruses. Waxyeellada ay sababaan fayrasyadani marka hore waxa ay ka bilaabantaa unugyada loo yaqaan epithelial cells ee xagga hoose ama gudaha kaga dahaadhan marinka ama habdhiska neefsashada (respiratory tract  system), gaar ahaan sambabada (lungs) halkaas buu ka sii gaadhaa meelaha kale ee jidhka. Waana sababta ay ku timaaddo cudurka Oof-wareenka (pneumonia), kaas oo ah cudur ku dhaca sambabada oo marinnada hawadu ay buuxiso malax ama ay adkaadaan oo bararaan. Taasina waxay keentaa in qofka bukaanka (patient) ah uu naqasku ku dhego ama ay dhib ku noqoto inuu neefsado.

Wuhan-CoV wuxu u muuqdaa inuu awood u leeyahay inuu sababi karo cudur daran ama aad u ba’an (severe  infection) iyo dhimasho. macluumaadka hordhaca ahi waxay muujinayaan inuu ku dhaco cudurkani inta badan oo ay nugul yihiin: dadka da’ada ah (elderly people), dadka qaba xaalado kale oo caafimaad-darro ah ama bukaanka ah iyo dadka wax ka qaba nidaamka difaaca jidhka (compromised immune system). 

Muddada cudurkani huursan yahay (incubation period) oo laga soo bilaabo marka cudurka la qaado ilaa marka caalamadaha iyo astaamaha lagu garto cudurkani soo baxaan waxa loo badinayaa inay tahay 2 ilaa 14 maalmood  ka dib qaadista cudurka.

Tilmaamaha lagu garto cudurka WN-CoV (WN-CoV Clinical features)

Sifooyinka  lagu garto cudurkan waxa ay aad isugu dhow yihiin lana mid yihiin kuwa ay sababaan fayrasyada kale ee ay isku bahda yihiin coronaviruses sida cudurka SARS, MERS, Common cold iyo fayrasyada kale ee sababa cudurrada ku dhaca habka neefsashada.  Astaamaha iyo calaamadaha (Signs/Symptoms) ugu badan ee lagu arko qofka ama bukaanka uu ku dhacay cudurka WN-CoV waxaa ka mid ah:

  • Qandho ama Xummad (fever)
  • Qufac (Coughing) 
  • San dareer ama duuf badnaan (Running nose)
  • Cuna xanuun (Sore throats)
  • Neefta oo yaraata (Shortness of breath)
  • Neefsashada oo adkaata (Breathing difficulties) 
  • Dareen caafimaad darro iyo daal guud

Xaaladaha ugu daran, waxa laga yaabaa inuu cudurku sababi karo:

  • Oof-wareen (Pneumonia) 
  • Xaalad daran oo saamaysa neefsashada (Severe acute respiratory syndrome) 
  • Kelyaha oo istaaga (Kidney failure)
  • Dhimasho ama geeri (Death)  

Astaamaha iyo calaamadaha tilmaamaya cudurka WN-CoV ee aan kor ku soo sheegnay, waxa laga soo ururiyey oo ay ku salaysan yihiin waxyaabihii lagu arkay dadkii la xaqiijiyey inuu ku dhacay WN-CoV  ilaa iyo markii la ogaadey. Dadkan uu ku dhacay cudurka WN-CoV, waxay isugu jireen dad cudurka qaba oo aan lahayn wax calaamado ah,  kuwo leh calaamado fudud ama yar,  kuwo aad u sakaraad ah iyo qaar dhimanaya.

Habka isu gudbinta cudurka WN-CoV (Transmission of WN-CoV infection)

WN-CoV, wuxu ka mid yahay fayrasyada qoyska coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) ee cudurrada ay sababaan ku faafaan raacista hawada ama hawadu sii gudbiso (airborne). Habka koowaad ee cudurka Wuhan fayras uu u gudbi karo ama loo kala qaadi  karo ee ilaa imminka la xaqiijiyey waa ka dadku isu gudbiyaan (Human to human transmission). Habka labaad ee loo malaynayaayo inuu Wuhan fayras ku gudbi karo waa qaqabadka ama gacan ku haynta xayawaannada laga qaadi karo (handling/handler animals) ama cunista cuntada lagu tuhunsan yahay inay ka timi xayawaannada hogya ama sooraha u ah fayraska (animal host) sida fiitmeerta ama kaballida (Bats). 

Isu gudbintaWN-CoV sida fayrasyada kale ee ay isku bahda yihiin, waxay u badan tahay inay ku faafto dheecaannada ama gobo’aha/dhibcaha (respiratory secretions) ee la socda neefsashada qofka cudurka qaba, sida qufaca, hindhisada, duufka,iwm. Waxa kale oo iyana la xaqiijiyey in sida MERS-CoV ay dadka cudurka la bukaa u gudbin karaan kuwa kale ee ku jira isbitaalada ama ka hawl gala goobaha daryeelka caafimaadka sida isbitaalada iyo xarumaha caafimaadka.

Cilmibaadhayaasha caafimaadku waxa ay ilaa hadda xaqiijiyeen in fayrasku ku faafi karo isu gudbinta qof ilaa qof, in kasta oo asalka isha fayraska (source of infection) laga qaaday aan la cadayn. Laakiin, sidaan hore u soo sheegnay WN-CoV, wuxu asal  ahaan ka yimid gudaha suuqa kalluunka ee Wuhan Huanan Haixian Pifa Shichang ee magaalada Wuhan. Sidaas awgeed, waxa la aaminsan yahay isla markaana xaqiiqooyinka ilaa hadda lahayaa muujinayaan in fayraska laga qaaday mid ka mid ah xayawannada lagu iibinayey suuqaas. Waxa ay u badan tahay in laga qaaday fiitmeerta/kaballida (Bats).

Ogaanshaha cudurka WN-CoV (Diagnosis of WN-CoV infection)

Qofka lagu tuhunsan yahay ee loo malaynaayo inuu qabo cudurka Wuhan fayras waxa lagu ogaan karaa laba siyaabood. 

1. Calaamadaha iyo astaamaha cudurka Wuhan fayras ee aan soo sheegnay oo lagu arko qofka qaba taas oo u baahan in lagu saleeyo meesha uu degan yahay ee ku nool yahay (sida qof degan Shiinaha) iyo sidoo kale taariikhda safarkiisa (travel history) meelaha uu qofku safarka ku tegay ama soo maray oo ah meelaha la og yahay in cudurka Wuhan fayras ka dillaacay kana jiro. Laakiin waxa keliya ee lagu xaqiijin karaa in calaamadahan iyo astaamahani yihiin kuwii Wuhan fayras waa baadhitaanka shaybaadhka caafimaadka iyo jawaabta laga helo muunadaha bukaanka ee laga baadhay Wuhan fayras (WN-CoV). 

2. Baadhitaanka shaybaadhka caafimaadka waxa lagu xaqiijin karaa jiritaanka cudurka marka la baadho muunadaha (samples) qofka buka si loo hubiyo in cudurku yahay WN-CoV  iyo in kale. 

Daaweynta cudurka WN-CoV  (Treatment of WN-CoV infection)

Cudurka WN- CoV weli looma hayo wax daawo ah (anti-viral drugs) ama tallaal (vaccination) ah oo lagaga hortagi karo. Cudurka WN-CoV  waa cudur guud ahaan yara sahlan oo aan u baahnayn daaweyn gaara. Haddii loo baahdo waxa ku filan qofka buka inuu isticmaalo waxyaabaha kaarka ama xumadda iyo madax xanuunka ka jebiya iyo dabcan nasasho iyo inuu qofku qaato cabitaan badan. Haddiise qofku aad u xanuunsado ama uu isku tuhunsan yahay inuu hayo WN-CoV waxa wanaagsan markiiba inuu la xidhiidho xarumaha caafimaadka iyo takhaatiirta si loo hubiyo xaaladdiisa caafimaad dadka kalena looga ilaaliyo inuu qaadsiiyo.

Bukaannada u soo dhaca cudurkan ama xaaladdooda caafimaad ba’an tahay ee u baahda in la dhigo isbitaallada, waxa keliya ee lagu daaweeyaa waa gargaarid (supportive therapy) iyo ku daaweynta oxygenta si looga ilaaliyo bukaanka inaan naqasku ku dhegin ama xubnaha kale ee muhiimka ah dhaawac gaadhin (vital organs). Waxa bukaanka lagu gargaaraa waxyaabaha ka caawiya neefsashada iyo in caafimaadkiisa guud la daryeelo oo wax kasta oo suuragelinayaa bogsashadiisa ama ka soo rayntiisa  ayaa lagula tacaalaa. Bukaannada aad culusna waxa loo wareejiyaa qaybta ITU/ICU ee isbitaalka. Sidaas awgeed, waxa ugu muhiimsan ee loo qaban karo dadka cudurkani ku dhaco waa daryeel taakulayn ah si  bukaanka looga caawiyo yareynta calaamadaha cudurka iyo sidii loo ilaalin lahaa howlaha xubnaha jidhka ee muhiimka ah (vital organs).

Ka hortagga cudurka WN-CoV (Prevention of WN-CoV infection) 

Sida ugu wanaagsan ee looga hortagi karo cudurkan waa in laga fogaado ama la iska ilaaliyo in fayrasku ku soo gaadho.  Cudurka WN-CoV iyo fayrasyada kale ee ay isku bahda yihiin waxay u fiditaan ama u faafaan inay hawada soo raacaan (airborne infections). Dadka qaba cudurku waxay ku gudbiyaan fayraska cuduraysan qufaca, hindhisada, taabashada, iwm. Siyaabaha kale ee cudurka looga qaadi karo dadka qaba waxa ka mid ah: taabashada qof cudurka qaba (gacmaha ama wejiga), taabashada waxyaabaha ay ka midka yihiin albaabada iyo wax kasta oo dadka cudurka qabaa ay taabteen ama isticmaaleen.

Ka hortagga iyo xakamaynta cudurka ahmiyadda ama mudnaanta ugu sarreysa waxa koow ka ah  tallaabooyinka shakhsigu ama qofku isku ilaalin karo iyo in la raaco talooyinka ay bixiyaan hawlwadeennada caafimaadku. Waxa kale oo iyana muhiim ah in ay caado joogto ah noqoto ku dhaqanka caadooyinka wanaagsan oo maalin kasta la dhaqan gelin karo si looga hortago faafitaanka fayrasyo badan oo cudurro halis ah sababa, gaar ahaan fayrasyada neef-mareenka  waxyeellada u geysta (respiratory viruses) sida coronaviruses. 

Tallaabooyinka shakhsigu ama qofku isku ilaalin karo

Tallaabooyinka shakhsigu ama qofku isku ilaalin karo, si qof kastaa uga badbaado halista cudurka waa inuu qaadaa tallaabooyinkan soo socda ee hoos ku qoran:

  • Gacmahaaga ku dhaq  ama ku maydh saabuun iyo biyo ugu yaraan muddo ah 20 ilbidhiqsi (20 seconds) gudahood.
  • Haddii saabuun iyo biyo aan la heli karin, isticmaal  waxyaabaha kale ee nadiifiyaha ah sida nadiifiyeyaasha alkoloda leh ee aad heli kartid (alcohol-based hand sanitiser).
  • Iska ilaali inaad ku taabato indhahaaga, sankaaga, iyo afkaaga gacmo aan nadiif ahayn oo aan dhaqnayn ama aan maydhnayn.
  • Ka fogow xidhiidh dhow inaad la yeelato dadka jiran ama xanuunsanaya.
  • Ku dedaal inaad guriga joogto marka aad jiran tahay ama xanuunsanaysid.
  • Ku qabo qufacaaga ama hindhisada shay nadiif ah sida tissue/masar, iwm ka dibna ku tuur masarka meelaha qashinka loogu talo galay.
  • Had iyo jeer nadiifi oo ku nadiifi jeermis dile (disinfectant) meelaha wax  taabteen ama gaadheen iyo sagxadaha dusha sare sida miisaska iwm.
  • Ku dedaal xoojinta iyo  ilaalinta nadaafada guud. 
  • Isticmaal qalabka la isku hortaago fidista cudurka ee loo yaqaan PPE (personal protection equipment) sida galoofiska. maaskarada afka, iwm, gaar ahaan haddaad  dadka buka daryeesho.

Waxyaabahaas badankooda waxad ka dhigan kartaa caado joogto ah oo ka mid ah ku dhaqanka caadooyinka wanaagsan ee maalin walba la samayn karo. Siyaabaha kale ee looga hortagi karo si loo xakameeyo cudurka WN-CoV faafitaankiiisa waxa ka mid ah in la qaado tallaabooyinkan soo socda:

  1. Waa in la bilaabo olole wacyigelin ah si bulshadu u ogaadaan caafimaad darrada ka iman karta WN-CoV.
  2. Waa in mudnaanta koowaad la siiyo sidii loo feejignaan lahaa loona ilbaadin lahaa inaan cudurku dalka soo gaadhin lana xaddido dhaqdhaqaaqa socotada.
  3. Waa in lagu dedaalo sidii loo ogaan lahaa sidee cudurka WN-CoV ku bilaabmay, meeshee ka bilaabmay iyo sidee ku faafay si loo qorsheeyo hababka saxda ah ee lagu xakamayn karo WN-CoV (Lacalla haddii ay dhacdo).  
  4. Waa in dadka bukaanka daryeela ama daaweeya is ilaaliyaan si fiicanna isu nadiifiyaan oo saabuun iwm ku faraxashaan, waana inay markasta  isticmaalaan qalabka  PPE ee ku habboon hawsha hadba ay hayaan. 
  5. Waa in muunadaha bukaanka  iyo waxyaabaha kale ee sadhaysan si hagaagsan loo maamulo oo meel ku habboon lagu shubo isla markaana lagu qubo si aan fidista cudurku u sii socon (proper waste management system).
  6. Waa in sare loo qaadaa ilaalinta shakhsiga si looga hortago gudbinta cudurka WN-CoV bulshada dhexdeeda. 
  7. Waa in lagu dedaalo sidii loo yarayn laha safarka loo socdaalayo meelaha la sheegay in cudurku ka dillaacay dalka gudihiisa iyo debeddiisaba siiba dadka u nugul cudurkan.
  8. Waa in dadka socotada ah ee ka yimaadda degaannada lagu tuhunsan yahay cudurka WN-CoV isha lagu hayo xaaladdooda caafimaad inay wax iska beddeleen iyo in kale. Mararka qaarkood haddii aad looga baqo inay bukaan, waa in la karantiimayaa (Quarantine).
  9. Waa in laga war hayaa dadka u nugul cudurkan ee la sheegay inuu duray/hargab ku dhacay si loo ogaado hadday jirto in wax dhibaato ahi ka soo gaadhay cudurka WN-CoV.
  10. Waa in bulshada lagu waaniyo inay tallaabooyinka shakhsigu ama qofku isku ilaalin karo ugu dhaqmaan si joogto ah iyo inay raacaan talooyinka ay bixiyaan hawlwadeennada caafimaadku. 
  11. Waa in la diiwaangeliyo dadka la ogaaday inuu ku dhacay WN-CoV si loo ogaado tiro koobka iyo dhibaatada ka iman karta cudurka Wuhan nCoV.

Haddii ay dhacdo in cudurka WN-CoV uu dalka ka dillaaco ilaahay cidna kuma keenee waxa la qaadaa tallaabooyin iyo barnaamaj heer magaalo ama degmo ama gobol ama heer qaran ah oo isugu jira ka hortagid (prevention) iyo xakamayn (controlling).  Waxa xaaladahan oo kale lagaga guulaysan karaa oo lagu dhammayn karaa iyadoo la qaadayo tallaabooyin xannibaad ah oo ku salaysan kala hagid ama hakin loo maraayo hannaanka  caafimaadka guud ee hagidda iyo hakinta (public health intervention). 

Talloobooyinka  ugu waaweyn ee la qaadi karo si loo hakiyo ama loo xannibo WN-CoV haddii uu dillaaco waxay ka kooban yihiin: 

1. Barnaamijyo  ballaadhan oo baadhitaan caafimaad ah (Massive health screening programmes)  

2. Iskarantiimayn iskaa ah (Voluntary quarantine) 

3. Xayiraad ama xaddidyo la xaddido safarka/socdaalka (Travel restrictions). 

Wuhan novel coronavirus: Halista caafimaad ee uu sababi karo

Cudurka WN-CoV, xaaladdiisu weli waa mid socota oo isbed-bedelaysa bulshada adduunkuna waxa ay ka werwersan yihiin halista caafimaad darro ee ka iman karta cudurkan ugubka ah ee ku cusub caalamka. Halista ugu badan ee laga cabsi qabaa waa cudurkan oo aan hore adduunyadu waxba uga aqoon isla  markaana aan la garanayn marka la soo afjarayo dhibaatadiisa iyo fiditaankiisa. Khatarta kalena waa iyada oo la tuhunsan yahay in laga qaadi karo cudurka qofka qaba  ka hor ama inta aan weli  astaamaha iyo calaamadaha cudurku ku soo bixin oo uu ku jiro muddadii kal huuriska (incubation period). Halka, cudurrada kale ee fayrasyada coronaviruses sababaan sida SARS-CoV iyo MERS-CoV waxa laga qaadi karaa cudurka qofka qaba marka ay ka muuqdaan astaamaha iyo calaamadaha cudurka oo keliya.  laakiin waxa loo badinaya in  WN-CoV laga qaadi karo intaan  calaamadaha cudurku muuqan. Waxa la xaqiijiyey ilaa hadda in cudurkani yahay mid la is qaadsiiyo (very contagious), taasina waa halis. 

Haddii cudurka laga qaadi karo qof aanay ka muuqan calaamadihii cudurku,  halisteeda ayay leedahay, waayo waxay sii adkaynaysaa xakamayntii WN-CoV. Waxay sii xoojinaysaa inuu cudurku sii faafi karo taas oo sahlaysa inuu meel walba gaadhi karo oo noqon karo safcaam ah (Pandemic).   Dhibta ugu badan ee fayraska WN-CoV waxa weeye, inuu dadka qaarkood sababo severe viral pneumonia (Oof-wareen ba’an) oo ay adagtahay sida loo daaweeyo iyo daryeelkeeduba. Waayo, fayrasyada coronaviruses iyo WN-CoV dhammaantood ma laha wax daawooyin ama tallaal ah sidaan hore u soo xusnay. Waxa intaas sii dheer in dadka u nuqul cudurkan ay dhibaatooyin (complications) badani ka soo gaadhaan, mararka qaarkoodna laga yaabo inay uba dhintaan. Arrinta ugu werwerka badani, waa dhimashada Dr Li Wenliang  (34 jir) oo ka baxsan dadka u nugul  cudurka.  Waxa laga cabsi qabaa in waxyeellada fayrasku gaadhi karto dhammaan bulshada qaybaheeda oo dhan isla markaana ay cid waliba u dhiman karto.

Lama xaqiijin weli isha cudurka (source of infection) iyo nooca xayawaanka ee laga qaaday cudurka  WN-CoV iyo soorah fayraska (animal hosts). Si loo joojiyo fidista cudurka waxa muhiim ah in la ogaado ama la aqoonsado isha iyo sooraha cudurka. Ilaa hadda caddaymaha lahayaa waxay farta ku fiiqayaan in laga qaaday cunista fiidmeerta (bats). Laakiin xaqiiqdeedu weli gabagabo maaha waana socotaa baadhisteedu. Haddiiba ay dhacdo inuu cudurka WN-CoV faraha ka baxo waxa halis  caafimaad iyo mid dhaqaaleba ka soo gaadhaysaa dunida oo dhan, gaar ahaan waddamada shacabkoodu ama dadkoodu badan yahay sida Shiinaha, Hindiya iyo  dalalka kale xuduudaha la wadaaga Shiinaha. Waxa kale iyo iyana hadduu soo gaadho dhibaatooyin badan ka soo gaadhayaan dalalka saboolka ah gaar ahaan kuwa Afrika iyo Asia.  Haddii Shiinuhu si dhakhso ah u xakamayn kari waayo waxa suuragal ah in halista caafimaad sii badato oo dad badani u dhiman karaan. Haddiise, ay ku guulaystaan waa tallaabo muhiim ah oo nafo  badani ku badbaadi doonaan isla markaana maal fara badani ku baaqan doono.

Gabagabo iyo xogihii ugu dambeeyey xaaladda WN-CoV

Cudurka Wuhan fayras xaaladdiisu weli waa mid socota oo isbed-bedelaysa, wuxuu ugu fidayaa si baaxad leh gudaha waddanka Shiinaha. Waxa sii kordhaysa tirada dadka u dhintay  iyo inta uu ku dhacay ee qaaday. Waxa uu gaadhay oo ku faafay waddamo badan in kastoo ay yar tahay weli tirada dadka ugu geeriyootay meel ka baxsan Shiinaha. Cabsi iyo argagax badan baa ka jirta guud ahaan Shiinaha, gaar ahaan magaalada Wuhan oo lagu soo rogay xayiraad safarka ah si loo joojiyo fidista cudurka. Waxa laga cabsi qabaa inuu u gudbo adduunyada kale gaar ahaan dalalka saboolka ah. Si taas looga hortago oo loo xakameeyo faafista cudurka, 28/01/2020 laanta WHO waxay go’aamisay oo ku dhawaaqday xaalad caafimaad oo deg-deg ah taas oo looga golleeyahay in caalamku si wadajir ah uga wada qayb qaato dedaallada lagu xakamaynaayo cudurka Wuhan nCoV.

Laga soo bilaabo 10 Febraayo 2020 (11:30pm), xogta rasmiga ah ee ay soo saartay  Chinese National Health Commission iyo WHO waxa ay sheegaysaa in tirada dadka uu ku dhacay ay gaadhayso  41,171 kiis, inta u geeriyootay waa 909 qof. Laanta WHO  waxay sheegtay inuu cudurku gaadhay ilaa 27 waddan uuna ku dhacay 387 qof. 

Cudurka WN-CoV, fayraska sababay waa mid ugub ah oo aan hore loo aqoon waxa la aamminsan yahay inuu yahay fayraska xayawaanka (animal virus) oo laga qaaday cunnidda hilibka xayawaanka, gaar ahaan fiidmeerta (bat-borne infection). Xagga abla-ablaynta fayraska (virological classification) waxa la aqoonsaday inuu yahay RNA fayras kana mid ah bahda coronaviruses, gaar ahaanna ka ah beta-coronavirus hidde ahaanna la mid ah coronaviruska sababa SARS (SARS-CoV) ee laga helo fiidmeerta Aasiya. Waxa loogu walqalay in waqtigan lagu magacaabo Wuhan nCoV ilaa iyo inta laga helaayo macluumaad dheeri ah iyo magaca rasmiga ah ee ku habboon fayraskan ugubka ah (novel virus). 

Cudurka WN-CoV ilaa iyo imminka xogta laga hayaa waa mid hordhac ah. Sidaas awgeed, wax sidaas ah lagama oga waqtigan xaadirka ah. Marka la eego macluumaadka laga hayo ilaa hadda, aqoonta iyo waayo-aragnimada laga dhaxlay cudurrada ay sababaan fayrasyada coronaviruses (Common  cold, SARS, MERS, etc) waxa ay  muujinaysaa inuu  yahay  coronavirus infection. Wuxu sababaa cudurrada ku dhacaa  habdhiska neefsashada ee sida durayga oo kale ah. Bukaannada qaarkood  gaar ahaan kuwa ay hayaan xanuunnada kale ee ku dhaca habka neefmareenka, difaaca jidhkoodu daciifka yahay iyo kuwa waayeelka ah waxa laga yaabaa inuu ku xumaado oo sababo cudurka Oof-wareenka (viral  pneumonia).

Fayraska keena cudurka WN-CoV waxa laga qaadi karaa neefsashada dadka qaba oo uu neefsashadooda soo raaci karo iyo qufacooda, duufkooda, hindhisadooda iyo wax kasta oo gobo ama dhibic dareere ah oo ka soo baxda bukaanka (respiratory  droplets). Astaamaha iyo calaamadaha lagu garto  cudurkan waxaa ka mid ah xummad/qandho, qufac,cuno xanuun, san dareer, neefsashada oo ku dhibta, iwm.  Siyaabaha looga hortagi karo ama lagu xakamayn karo fayraska WN-CoV waxa ugu muhiimsan iyada oo la raaco tallaabooyinka shakhsigu ama qofku isku ilaalin karoeeaan ku soo sheegnay qoraalka qaybihiisii hore. Waxa kale oo iyana mudan in la qaato oo la hirgeliyo xusuusinta WHO iyo hay’adaha kale ee caafimaadka  talooyinkooda ku saabsan ka hortagga oo maalin kasta innaga caawin kara ka hortagga faafitaanka fayrasyada neef-mareenka (respiratory  viruses). 

Cudurka WN-CoV ilaa hadda ma laha tallaal lagaga hortegi karo iyo wax  daawooyin ah oo lagu daaweyn karo. Arrimaha su’aalaha waaweyni ka taagan yihiin ee aan weli sida buuxda wax looga aqoon waxa ka mid ah: Waa maxay sida ugu fudud ee fayrasku si toos ah ugu kala gudbi karo qof ilaa qof?  Fayraskani  khatar ma yahay? Ma ku faafi karaa adduunka oo dhan? Wax tallaal ah ma loo heli karaa?

Xogta qoraalkani, waxa ay ku salaysan tahay waxyaabaha hordhaca ah ee ilaa imminka laga og yahay xaaladda cudurka WN-CoV iyo xogta hadda jirta.   Fayraskan xaaladdiisu weli waa mid socota oo isbed-bedelaysa waxana laga yaabaa waqtiga la daabacay qoraalkan ka dib in xaalkiisu si kale oo togan ama taban noqon karo. Ugu dambayn waxa waajib ah inaan feejignaanno, raacno tallaabooyinka hawl wadeennada caafimaadka isla markaana isha ku hayno halka ay marayso xaaladda guud ee cudurka fayraska WN-CoV iyo waxyaabihii ugu dambeeyay. 

Ma ogtahay akhriste Xadiiska Rasuulka (SCW) ee ku saabsan xaaladdan oo kale iyo xakamaynta cudurrada faafa: Cabdiraxman Ibn-Cawf (RC) waxa uu yidhi waxan maqlay Rasuulka (SCW) oo leh haddaad ku maqashaan (Daacuunka) dhul ha gelina. Haddii uu ku dhaco dhulkaad joogtaanna ha ka bixina, idinkoo ka cararaya. Waxa wariyey: Bukhari & Muslim.

Dr. Yasin Abdi.   Senior Healthcare Scientist, Clinical Microbiologists at UK National Health Service (NHS), London, UK. Email: [email protected]      

Tixraacyo (references) for Coronavirus  Outbreak

World Health Organisation (WHO)

https://www.who.int/

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA

https://www.cdc.gov/

European  Centre for Disease Control  (ECDC)

https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/home

Public  Health England (PHE), UK

https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/public-health-england

American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

https://asm.org/


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