Tuesday, August 20, 2019
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Waa maxay waddaniyad (patriotism)?

W/Q Maxamed Xasan Faarax

Arar

Waa maxay waddaniyad?

Marar badan ayaa la maqlaa dooddo, sheekooyin, hadalo ama la akhriyaa qoraallo uu nuxurkoodu yahay waddaniyadda qofka ama wadarta, si loo iftiimiyo heerka jacaylka ee qofka ee dalkiisa/keeda. Waa sifo kala soocaysa dareenka dal-jacayl ee labo qof , labo kooxood ay leeyihiin.

Calanka Ummadda

Cilmi ahaan asalka erayada (etymology) waddaniyad waxay ka soo jeeddaa afka carabiga oo Soomaalidu amaah ku heshay, balse afka laatinka waa erayga pater (Aabe) oo u dhalan rogatay patria una dhigma dal af soomaali. Afafka qalaad qaar ayaa adeegsada erayga dalka Aabe (fatherland), balse Soomaalidu waxay ka mid tahay bulshooyinka u leexday dhinaca hooyada, dalka Hooyo (motherland). Halkaas waxaa laga dheehan karaa jacaylka xooggan ee qofka Soomaaliga u leeyahay dalkiisa.  

Mid kastoo lagu dhaqmo, xulashada eraygu waa arrin la xidhiidha dhaqanka soojireenka ah ee bulsho kasta, bulshooyinku waa ka siman yihiin tixgelinta iyo qadarinta magaca waddaniyad iyo sifada waddaninimo. Sidaas awgeed, qeexidda erayga waddaniyad aad uma kala duwana bulshooyinka adduunka oo dhan.

Wadaniyadda waxaa lagu qeexaa:

  1. Inuu qofku leeyahay dareen daljacayl;
  2. Inuu qofku ku abtirsanayo dalka iyo bulshada degan;
  3. Inuu qofku daneeyo wanaagaiyo horumarka dalkaas;
  4. Iinuu qofku ilaalinayo danaha iyo haybadda dalkaas;
  5. Inuu qofku daacad u yahay, diyaarna u yahay inuu  u hurro waxkasta dalkaas.

Qeexidaas wadaniyada waa hawraaro kooban oo u baahan faahfaahin iyo in dhinacyo badan laga iftiimiyo, si daboolka looga qaado nuxurka wadaniyada iyo xayndaab macneed iyo aragti ee ay leedahay. Qofka wadaniga ah waxaa looga baahan yahay inuu: muujiyo dareen adag ee daljacayl, la yimaado daacadnimo, ka qaybqaato howlaha horumarinta dalka, u huro aqoon, karti, naf iyo hanti dalkahooyo.

Maqnaashaha dareenka wadaniyada, wuxuu bulshada dhaxalsiinayaa dabac ku yimaada midnimadda dadka iyo dalka oo u nuglaada halis uga timaada dibedda.Sidaas ayey wadaniyada wadareed u tahay tiir lagama maarmaan u ah midnimada bulshada.

Qeexid Erayo muhiim ah:

  • Dalyahanimo: waa eray cusub oo lala mid dhigay erayga wadaninimo;
  • Dal-jacayl: (eray cusub) wuxuu la mid ah dalyahanimo iyo waddaniyad
  • Dalyahan: (eray cusub) waa sifo tilmaamaysa qofka wadaniga ah, waxaa laga xigtay erayo ay mid yihiin aqoonyahan, orodyahan,ciyaaryahan,iwm
  • Qaran-jacayl (eray cusub)waxay u dhigantaa daljacayl ama erayga nationalism
  • Bahwadaag waa baho iyo beelo isir wadaag ah oo wax badani ka dhexeeyaan

Wadaniyad (patriotism), Qaran (nation) iyo Qaran-jacayl (nationalism)

Mandhaaf ayaa ka dhexjira aqoonyahanada cilmiga bulshada (social science) si loo qeexo fikirka ku lammaan eryada Dowlad (state), Qaran (nation) iyo Qaran-jacayl (natioinalism). Inkastoo aysan dhamaan khuseyn qoraalkan, hadana lagama maarmo in la xuso, si loo helo sawir waafi ah.

  • Dowlad (state): waa nidaam siyaasadeed, madaxbanaan, leh dad iyo dhul uu maamulo, leh awood sharcidajin iyo meelmarin,lana aqoonsan yahay;
  • Qaran (nation): waa bulshoweyn dad oo la askumay taariikh hore,  deggan dhul, bahwadaag ah, leh af kaliya, hiddo iyo dhaqan midaysan. In bulshoweyntu ku mideysan tahay hab siyaasadeed qudha waa muhiim, mase aha lagamamaarmaan;
  • Qaranjacayl (nationalism): inta badan si isu dhiganta ayaa loo adeegsadaa erayada waddaniyad iyo qaran-jacqyl (nationalism), balse astaamo kale ayaa u dheer, sida dareen ficiltan. 

 Haddaba ma kala duwan yihiin labada eray mise waa isku mid?

Waddaniyad waxaan ku qeexnay jacaylka iyo muujinta daacadnimo ee dalka, hase yeeshee qaran-jacayl oo aslakeedu ka soo jeedo erayga qaran (nation) waxay leedahay labo micne oo iskaaba. Qaranjacayl waa in loo noqdo daacad dalka, lana muujiyo rabitaan weyn.

Tan labaad, qaran-jacayl waxaa tilmaan u ah, doorbidid ummadda uu qofku ku abtirsado iyo in la koryeelo wanaag kasta ee ay leeyihiin.Tusaalle ahaan, in la horumariyo, la faafiyo hiddaha iyo dhaqan suuban ee bahwadaagtu/bulshadu leeyahay. Sidoo kale, ilaalinta iyo wanaajinta danaha dadka iyo dalku leeyahay, marka la barbardhigo dal qalaad iyo dad kale.

Dhinac hadii laga eego, fasiraada labadda eray waa mid qura, gaar ahaan  marka ay noqoto muujinta dareenka daljacayl iyo u heeganaan daryeelkiisa iyo dhowristiisa. Hase yeeshee waxaa muuqda inay qaranjacayl loo adeegsan karo macne intaa ka badan. Qofka qaran-jacayl lagu sifeeyo waxuu kaloo u heelan yahay suubanyaasha bulsheed (social values), rumaysiyada (beliefs), suugaanta, hiddaha, dhaqanka wacan iyo soojireenka (history) bulshoweyntaas gaar u ah.

Dhalanrogga wadaniyadda:

Heerka wadaniyada qofku ma ahan wax joogta ah ee waa dhalanrogataa, sababto ah marku isbedel ku yimaado  rumaysiyada (beliefs) iyo suubanayaasha bulshadeed (social values) ee dadka intooda badan, waxay taasi keeni kartaa in isbedel ku dhaca heerka daljacayl ee qofka, dabadeed bulshadaas. Dhalanrogaasi wuxuu noqon kara mid tabane (positive) ama togane (negative) ah. Isbedelka heerka wadaniyada qofka ama dadka badan waxaa dhalinaya falal iyo xaalado hoos u dhigaya ama kor u qaadaya waxyaabaha bulsho mudnaan u ah iyo waxkasto ay xubnaha bulshadu wadaagaan.

Maqaalkan laguma  koobi karo arrimaha saameynta ku leh dhalanrogga heerka daljacayl ama waddaniyad, balse waxaase tusaalle ku filan arrimahaas kuwa soo socda:

  • Barbaarinta, wacyigelinta iyo waxbarasho: mar haduusan qofku ku dhalan waddaniyada, barbaarinta hore iyo waxbarashada taxan ayaa ku abuura waddaniyada wanaagsan. Waxaa kaloo dhidibadda u aasa wacyigelin bulshada loo sammeyo guud ahaan. Kuwaas laáantood heerkas waddaniyadu dabac ayaa ku dhacaya;
  • Dhaxalka taariikheed ee halganka iyo suugaanta halyeyadii hore;
  • Hoggaanka dowladnimo ee ku tilmaaman sinaan, caddaalad iyo garsoor wacan waxay ku abuurta quluubta dadka dareen xoogan ee daljacayl. Hoggaanka  tilmaamo ka duwan lehi wuu dhaawaca ama gabi ahhan dilaa waddaniyad.
  • Colaadda, nacayb iyo dagaal bulshada dhexdeeda ka curta, wuxuu wiiqa heerka dareenka wadaniyad iyo daljacaylka, sababtoo ah tunta bulshadu ka unkan tahay ayaa wiiqmaysa.

Xaaladda  wadanninimada  ee Soomaaliya

Wadanninimada Soomaaliyeed waxay soo martay heerar kala duwan, hadba xaaladda dhabta ee markasta dalka ka jirtay. Wixii ka horeeyey qaybta 2-baad ee Qarniga 19-naad  waxaa la hubbaa inuu heerka waddaniyadu ama daljacaylku aad u sareeyey, sababto ugu muhiimsan waxay aheyd in dalka dibedda looga soo duulay oo madaxbanaanida dalka iyo dadka ay luntay. Gumeysi ayaa awoodi la wareegay, qofkasta halis, cabudhin iyo cidhiidhi ayuu ka dareemay nololmaalmeedka, marka ay xoriyada qofeed  dhimantay.

Halgan iyo kacdoon ayaa abuurmay oo sababay in waddaniyada bulshadu ay sare u kacdo. Qofkasta wuxuu noqday mid hura naftiisa, hiil iyo hooba, si uu halganka qayb uga noqdo, madaxbanaani loo hello. Cidkasta ee lagu tuhmo inaysan halganka qayb ka aheyn, waxaa lagu tilmaamay dhagarqabe khiyaamo galay. Wuxuuna dhaxlay takoor iyo magacxumo raagta.

Halyeeyo dhinaca hoggaanka bulshada, diinta  iyo suugaanta ayaa kacay.  Midnimada bulshoweynta Soomaaliyeed ayaa korortay, waxaa adkaaday dunta bulshada isu haysa, waxaa shuuqay dareenka abtirsiga heer  beeleed. Waxaa faafay dareenka daljacayl oo heer sare gaadhay iyo in lagu faano, laguna abtirsado soomaalinimo.

Sanooyinki ka dambeeyey madaxbanaanida dalka Soomaaliya heerka daljacayl ee dadka Soomaaliyeed lama kulmin dhaawac weyn, inkastoo mararka qaarkood ay aad u bilicday, gaar ahaan xilliyadii dagaalladi Soomaaliya- Itiobiya (1964 iyo 1977) iyo qaybti hore ee xukunki ciidamada. Badana waxaa dadka niyadjab ku dhaliya marka uu hoggaanka dalku ku sifoobo eex, musuqmaasuq, cadaaladdaro, cabudhin iyo cadaadis. Nasiib wanaag, bulsho kasta waxay leeday qaab ay dib-u-sixid arrimahaas. Tusaale ahaan, kacdoonka bulshadu waa qalab labo afle ah, wuxuu xal u yahay toosinta hoggaanka ragaaday iyo adkeynta daljacaylka iyo waddaniyada.

Laga bilaabo bartamihi 1980-kii waxaa la arkay ifafaalo ay bulshada Soomaaliyeed diyaar u tahay kacdoon baaxad weyn, balse hoggaanxumo, kala qaybsanaan, iyo cadaaddis dowladeed awgeed ay adkatay in la saadaalliyo dhinaca uu abaarayo kacdoonkaasi. Durba marku kacdoonku bilowday, wuxuu isurogay mid beeleed oo naartii colaadda afuufay, dumiyey tiirkasta ee bulshada isku hayey.

Waddaniyada/daljacayl ee Soomaalida dhexdeeda waxaa, marki u horesay taariikhda, la geliyey muran iyo shaki. Fasiraado iyo macnayaal cusub ee eryayga wadanniyad/daljacayl ayaa ku baahay bulshada dhexdeeda, meel kasta ay joogto. Erayga Qaran oo hore ujeeddo qura lahaa, ayaa dhalanrogmay oo ay bulshaweynta Soomaaliyeed ku kala duwanaatay aragti iyo qeexid ahaan.

Qayb ka mid ah maanso uu tiriyey Cismaan Y. Keenediid marki horseedkii SYL ee hoggaanka dowladnimo qabtay ay dareenki daljacayl ku doorsadeen mid qabiil, ayaa sidaan u qoran:

Tafaraaruq kuwaa inagu ridey   toodi suubsade´e
Taws aan baxeyn iyo bugtay      nagu tallaaleene
Tubti innaga leexshiyo.              Jidki innagu toosnaye

Gunaanad

Muhiimada daljacayl (dalyahanimo) waa halbeega lagu garto midnimadda dadka Soomaaliyeed, taas oo lama huraan u ah horumarka iyo difaaca dalkahooyo. Hoggaanka bulsho, siyaasaddeed iyo dhaqan waxaa xil ka saaran yahay inay muujiyaan daljacayl dhab ah, kuna barbaariyaan dhalaanka iyo dhalinyarada.

Wakhtiga hadda la joogo waxaa loo baahan yahay in la bilaabo dood, wacyigelin iyo waxbarasho bulshada dhexdeeda si loo helo fikir iyo macne laga midaysan yahay ee daljacaylka (dalyahanimada) Soomaaliyeed. Hadii aan la helin dhaqan bulsho ee suuban (social virtue) way dhib badan tahay in la nooleeyo daljacaylnimada (dalyahanimada, waddaniyada).


Maxamed Xasan Faarax
Email:[email protected]
———————–

Tixraac

Anarita Puglielli iyo Cabdalla Cumar Mansuur, Qaamuuska Af Soomaaliga, , Roma 2012
Yaasiin C. Keenediid, Qaamuuska af- Soomaaliga (1976), Akademiyada Dhaqanka, Guddiga Af-Soomaaliga
Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London;
Alasdair Macintyre (1984), Is Patriotism a Virtue? The University of Kansas;


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