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Odhaah-siyaasadeedka Maanta: Sooyaalka Guulaha iyo Guuldarrooyinka Halganka Soomaalida Guumeysiga Itoobiya ku Hoos Jirta

W.Q. Faysal Cabdi Rooble

Yusuf Dheere (AU) ayaa laga hayaa, “Soomaalidaa Galbeed Waxay noqotay Gudun aan Daab lahayn!”. Waxa uu halgamaagu ka waday sida Soomaalida Itoobiya guumeysato ay u dadaalaan laakiinse natiijadu aanay ahayn mid ku raaligalin karta. Su’aasha hadddaba maanta taagani waxay tahay: nabadda ay qaadatay Jabhadda Wadiniga Xoreynta Ogaadeniya (JWXO) iyo isbeddalka mugga leh ee ka ambaqaaday Dawladda Deegaanka Soomaalidu, ma sidii hore ayay guul darro ku dambeyn doonaan mise markani waa kalkii ugu dambeeyey.

Maqaalkan waxaan si kooban ugu eegi doonaa isbarbar socodka iyo sooyaalka guulaha iyo guuldarrooyinka la soo darsay Soomaalida Itoobiya guumeysato. Waxaanan maqaalka ku muusayaa dhabar adeyga JWXO u yeelatay halganka iyo qadiyaddan faca weyn.

Maanta oo ay tahay bisha Desember 1, 2018 waxa magaalada Addis Ababa soo gaadhay Guddoomiyaha Jabhadda Wadaniga Xoraynta Ogaadeeniya (JXWO), Maxamed Cumar Cusman. Fantasiyo xooggan iyo waji furan ayaa lagu soo dhaweeyey waftiga, Guddoomiyuhuna hadal taariikh ah ayuu goob qado Sharaf lagu casuumay  ka jeediyeye: “Halgankanagu waxa uu soo taxnaa tan iyo Axmed Gurey,” ayuu guddoomiyuhu sheegay. Waxa lagu waadaa in Berito oo Axad ah waftigu u dhaafidoono dhinacaa iyo Jigjijga.

Haddaba waxa munaasib ah in la qiimeeyo sooyaalka guulaha iyo guul-darrooyinka la soo gudboonaaday kacdoonada Soomaaliyeed ee ku aaddan xornimo raadiska tan iyo intii Itoobiyaanku cariga Soomaalida yimaadeen taariikhdu markay ahayd 1884 iyo intii ka dambeeyey.

Halgankii iyo Kacdoonadii taariikhda galay

1900-1921kii: waxaa halgan hubeysan ku qaaday Itoobiya iyo saancaddaalayaashii kale ee reer Yurub Sayid Maxamed Abdulle Xasan iyo Daraawiishtiisii. Xiligaas Itoobiya awood ay deegaanka oo idil ku qabsato may lahayn. Marka laga yimaado iskudhacyo iyo weerarro Daraawiishtu ku qaadday dablaydii Itoobiyaanka ahayd ee deeganka si maliishiyo ahaan ku joogtay, dagaallada dhexmaray labadan dhinacna wey koobnaayeen.

Kadib markii Sayidku uu Jabay, waxa uu u baxsaday Aruusi. Duumo ku dhacday awgeed ayuu la bukooday. Ras Mokenen oy u basaasayaan dad Aruusi ah ayaa warkaas Adari iyo Addisba keenay. Waa markuu Mokonin Sayidka ku yidhii “aniga i adeec oo kaalay Raas ka noqo gobolka Hararge.” Raas waa Amiir. Arrintaas Sayidku furka ayuu ku tuuray.

1948-1958: Kacdoonkii Geri oo ka dhashay diidmo ay madaxdii aagga Tulli Guuleed diideen in ay cashuur ama gibir bixiyaan, waxa uu socday muddo ku dhow 10 sano. Gibir bixintu waxay astaan u ahayd isdhiibka iyo adeeca awoodda gumeysiga Itoobiya. Sida lagu xusay Buug ay ay qortay Sylvia Pankhurst, kacdoon kaasi Gerigu askartii Itoobiyaanka waxay gebi ahaanba ka eryeen deegaannada Tulli Guuleed bankeeda, Jinacsani, Gursum iyo Baabili. Waxaanay Itoobiyaanku askartoodii iyo shacabkoodii qaxay iskugu wada yimaadeen magaalada Adari. Sida Sylvia Pankhurst oo Xayle Sellesie u shaqayn jirtay islamarkaana u ololaysay ku wareejinta “Ogadeniya and Reserved Area” gacanta Itoobiya ay qortay dawladdii Itoobiya ayaa qaylodhaan u dirtay Ingriiska in Soomaalidu aanay Aderi soo galin. Garaad Calina waa looga digay Aderi!

Guul daro ayaa la soo daristay halganaas sadex sababood awgood: 1) Igriiska oo hubkii ka goostay Garaad Cali Garaad Dalal iyo geeshkiisii; (2) Soomaalida deegaanka oon wax gacan ah aan siin kacdoonkaas mudada dheer socday (Shaly iyo Maanta isku ekaa); 3) Kacdoonka oon lahayn istraatejiyad habaysan aan ka ahayn Axmaaro erya.

Mar haddii la gaadhay 1956, Itobiyanku waxay qaadeen laba dagaal: mid ah xagga diblomasiyada iyo mid kale oo ahaa hujuun quwadi la socoto. Adduunka, gaar ahaan Ingriiska, Boqor Xayle Selaasi ayaa ka dhaadhciyey in “Geri ku laayay Gursum 700 oo isugu jira haween, carruur iyo shacab Itoobiyaan ah.” Waa sida Sylvia kusoo warrantay. Inkasta oon wax caddayna ah lakeenin, Ingriiskii been-abuurkii Itoobiya ayuu qaataay. Mar haddii uu xagga diblomasiga ku adkaaday, Boqor Xayle waxa uu qaadday guluf  lagu weeraray Banka Geri iyada oo la adeegsanayo Kanooniyo. Waxa Soomaalidu dagaalkaas u taqaanaa “dagaalkii kanooniga.” Sannadkii 1957dii, Gerigii wuu jabay, Toddoba( 7) nin oo madaxdiisii ka tirsanaana waatii lagu daldaley Faras magaalaha Jigjijga (Waxa mawduucan maqaal cilmiyesan ka qoray Dr. Xuseen Bulxan, Horn of Africa Journal, 1979). Halkaas waxa ku soo afjarmay Guushii iyo guuldarradii kacdoonkii ugu horreeyey ee halis galiyey gumaysiga Itoobiya.

1963-1964: Halgankii Geeshku waxa uu ka dhashay dhaqdhaqaaqii dhalinyaradii Al-Nasrulaahi. Kadib markii Itoobiyaanku cadaadis joogta ah ka daynwaayeen madaxdii iyo hawlwadeenadii urukaas, waxa daruuri noqotay in halganku isku badalo mid hubaysan.

Garaad Makhtal Daahir

Waxa halganka gacan buuxda markii hore siisay Dawladdii Soomaaliyeed ee xiligaas oy ka go’nayd midaynta shanta Soomaaliyeed. Garaad Makhtal Daahir ayaa horumood u ahaa, waana halgankii ugu horreeyey ee si habeysan u kacaan Soomaalida Itoobiya guumeysato. AU Makhtal Daahir oo ahaa nin karmeed (charismatic leader) ayaa cabsi taariikhi ah galiyey Itoobiya, markii dambane Xayla Selaasie dalbaday in nolol iyo maydba midkood loo keeno. Halgankan Soomaali wey u dhammayd halka kii ka horreeyey uu ku koobnaa beel kaliya.

Guuldarro wexay timid markii ay heshiis gaadheen labada dhinac ee Itoobiya iyo Soomaaliya, islamarkaana ay kala saxeexdeen heshiis caalami ah bishii Abril 6, 1964, Khartum oo ah magaalo madexda Suudaan. Heshiiskaas ka dib, waxa AU R/W Cabdirisaaq Xaaji Xuseen amray in dadkii deeganaadaasi ka yimid ee hubeysnaa hubka dhigaan dibna ugu noqdaan deegaanadoodii. Sida ay qortay New York Times oo 1964 wareysi ka qaadday Garad Makhtal, dawladdii Soomaaliya ee xiligaas waxay hoggaamiyaha ruuxiga ah ee Soomaali Galbeed ku soo rogtay xannibaad ku aaddan dhaqdhaqaaqa iyo hawlgalka Garad Makhtal. Waxa Garaadka lagu xasuustaa Gadhweyn oo u noqday diidmo gumeysi. Waxa uu kacdoonkii geeshku ku soo dhammaadey guuldarro iyadoon hadafkii weynaa la gaadhin.

Burburkii Soomaaliya dabadeed, Garaad Makhtal waxa uu ku soo laabtay deeganka Soomaali Galbeed isaga oo markii dambe Addis Ababa guri laga siiyey dagay.

1969-1978: Halgankii hubaysnaa ee Jabhadda Xornimadoonka Soomaali Galbeed (WSLF), waa wajigii saddexaas ee halgankan dheer ee Soomaalida Itoobiya kula dagaalameysay guumaysiga Itoobiya. Markay taariikhu ahayd 1969, waxa Bulaxaar ka soo dagay dhalinyaro Soomaaliyeed uu hoggaaminayey AU Maxamed Cali. Maxamed Cali waxa uu ahaa nin aabbihiis ka soo jeedo Burco haseyeeshee Cadan ku dhashay. Waxa Maxamed Cali la socday 7 illa 8 wiil oo komaandows ah oo Falastiiniyuuntu soo tababareen. Laba in oo kala ahaa Jarjarsa iyo Axmed Tuji oo Oromo ahaa ayaa Iyana la socday. Dooni ama sixiimad yar oy wateen ayaa Bulaxaar lagu qabtay.

Qorshohoodu waxa uu ahaa in ay si qarsoodi ah ku soo galaan Bulaxaar, xeebta kadagan, dabadeedna Buuraleyda Daakhato jabhad hubaysan ka bilaabaan. AU Maxamed Cali nin madaalaan ah, sida Makhtal gadhle ah oo runtii, marka Soomaalinimo laga hadlayo ahaa nafti hure, ayaa laf-dhabar u ahaa dagaalkii WSLF ee 1977kii.

Yusuf Dheere ayaa ku wahelinaayey Maxamed Cali hoggaanka xiligaas. Anigoo inan yar ah ayaan Jabhaddaas ku biiray tababarna ku qaatay xeradii Agabar oo gobolka W/Galbeed ku taalay.(Markale ayaan ka hadli doonaa). Kadib mar hadday Jabhaddii xooggaysatay, Soomaaliyana dagaalkii dhinaca ka soo gashay, waxa gacanta lagu dhigan dhulkii Soomaaliyeed oo dhan min Moyaale illaa Diredhabe. Meel kaliya oo Daakhato ku taal oo layidhaa Bakaka (buuralay lama galeen ah) ayaa guuto Amxaaro ah laga saari kari waayey. Febraayo 1978kii, Itoobiya oy barbar socdaan ciiddamadii huwanta ahayd ee Ruushka ayaa weerar xooggan ku soo rogaal celiyey.

Guuldarro ayaa markale la soo daristay Soomaalidii ka dib markii qalinka lagu duugnay (April 1978) heshiis kale oo Siyaad Barre iyo Mengistu wada galeen. Halgankii WSLF halkaa ayuu ku soo afjarmay. (Galbeed waa la Xoreeyey Waarsaase Gaagixisay!).

Sidii caadada u ahayd, Itoobiya waxay maashay diblomaasiyad hujuun xoog daba socdo. Waxay Itoobiya ku andacootay in ay Soomaaliya soo weerartay isla markaana waajib ay ku tahay adduunka oo dhani in wax ka qabto. Sidii 1950dii oo kale waxay mar labaad ku dacwootay in WSLF iyo Soomaaliya xasuuqeen maatidii Itoobiya ee daganay Godey iyo meelo kale.

!984-1994: waa toban sano oo la rabo in cashar siyaasadeed laga barto. Markii WSLF burburtay, markii Soomaali qabiil u kala jabtay, markii (AU) Maxamed Calina la qabyaaladeeyey uuna ku biiray SNM, markuu gumeysigii uu aad u nacbaana isu dhiibay isaga oo Jigjiga dagay, WSLF halkay xamaantii dhigtay waxaa ka qaaday JWXO ama OLNF.

JWXO waxay aasaasmatay ka dib markii ay ka biyo diidday dawladdii Siyaad Barre heshiid ay la gashay Mangistu Xayle. Heshiiskan dambena waxa uu la mid ah kii Khartum ay ku galeen Soomaalia iyo Itoobiya.

Falsafad cusub ayaa lagu aasaasay JWXO oo ahayd in aan mar dambe Soomaaliya iyo madaxdeeda aan la isku hallayn, sababtoo ah mar walba oo xaalku adkaado, halganka xornimadoonka Soomaalida Itoobiya gumaysato waxa uu noqdaa “wankii ciidda,” (the sacrificial lamb). Taasaa keentay in JWXO isku tashato. Jabjad xiddido adag ku qotonta  ayey markay u xuub siibatay. Qaadhaanka Qurba joogta iyo shaqsiyaad addunka daafihiisa dagan ayaa taakuleeyey. Suugaan maal, sida Roda Farjano oo kalena, mooraalka in ay dhisaan bay u guntadeen. JWXO waxay la mid noqotay jabhadaha qowmiyadaha aduunka oo kale.

Markii uu Meles Zenwi qabsaday awooda Itobiya, waxa gogol nabadeed loo fidiyey JWXO iyada oo xafiisyo ka furatay Addis Ababa iyo Jigjigaba. Awoodda deegaankana wexbaa laga siiyey. Hase yeeshee, Meles Zenawi dabin ayuu had iyo jeer u maleegayey JWXO: (1) in baalaha laga rifo Jabhadda iyada oo Jigjiga joogta; (2) in Soomaalida qaar ka mid ah lagu kiciyo; (3) in xisbi Meles u daacad ah laga kor mariyo JWXO isla markaana awoodda xisbinimo si dahsoon looga xayuubiyo.

Iyada oo la adeegsanayo OPDO ayaa dagaal cad lagu qaadday xafiiskii JWXO ee Jigjiga. Mar aan Jigjiga tagay 1992kii, xabbadihii gidaarka xafiiska JWXO lala beegsanayey wali wey muuqdeen.

Inkaarqabe Males waxa uu ku guuleystay saddex arimood: 1) In dad Cabdi Maxamuud Cumar oo kale ah la abuuro laguna garaaco JWXO; (2) In JWXO iyo Soomaalida Deegaanka la isku diro;(3) in Puntland, Somaliland,

Galmudug, iyo Muqdisho laga dhigo cadow ugaadhsanaya walaalahooda JWXO (Ha hilmaamin boqolaalkii fadaahiyiin ee maxbuus ahaan laga dhiibay Somaliland, Puntland, iyo Qalbidhagax arintiisii oo dhacday sannad ka hor).

Hase yeeshee, Asmara iyo Eriteriya, iyo Soomaalida Kenya joogta ayaa JWXO miciin u noqday. Inkasta oo JWXO 1.0 (ONLF 1.0) guuldarro xagga gudha soo gaadhay, Jabhad ahaan waa kortay; caalamkuna wuu aqoonsaday in ay xornimo doon tahay. Isla markaana, taageeroyaal badan oo mabda adag haysta ayaa u abuurmay. Waxa kale oo JWXO u abuurmay kadiriin mab’da adag leh oon la loodin kareyn.

2018 iyo intii ka dambysa: Beryahanba waxa socday wadahadallo u dhaxeeya JWXO iyo PM Abiy, kuwaas oo midho dhaliyey; waxa Addis Abab ku sugan Godoomiyhii JWXO oo soo xerooday ka dib heshiis markii ay labada dhinac qalinka ku duugeen. Mar haddii labada dhinac isarkeen, waxa hubaal ah in Goddoomiyuhu u soo gudbidoono Jigjigja.

Waxaa xiisa badan loo hayaa nooca uu yahay jadwelka Guddoomiyahu 30 beri ee soo socda. Wax la saadaalinayaa in uu garoonka kubbadda Cagta ee magaalada Jigjiga ka hadli doono, kadibna uu socdaal gali doono.

Tolow halkuu ku horreyn? Ma Tulli Guuleed, Baabili iyo Moyaale ayuu booqan doonaa? Mise, waa sidii laga sheegay waa hore’ “Xaaji Gaydh halkuu Xamaanta Dhigtiyo Xajkeenu Xidhinta weeyaan,” oo waxa uu durba u gudbi Dhagabuur iyo Bulaale, dabadeedna usii gudbi doonaa tan iyo Qorraxay?

Weli la ma saadaalin karo. Waxase talo fiican ah in uu si siman u wada booqdo goobihii laga tageerijirey iyo deegaana Soomaalida ee colaaddu ku habsatay ilaa haddana cid u miciintaa aanay jirin. Xabashidu waxay ku maahmaadaa “La timkat yal hone shamiis yibadaada,” ama “garbagalahan aan gashanwaayey maalinta timqadka ah, haba iga hadho.” Taageerada Gudoomiyaha waxa u baahan Deegaanada dhibtu ku soo dhacday iyo kuwa hadda ay ka taagantahay.

Intaas waxaa Iyana dheer in ONLF looga baahanyahay in ay cashar ka bartaro Guuliihii iyo guuldarooyinkii halganku soo maray, gaar ahaan waxii iyda lasoo gudboonaaday 1994kii.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, xiligan hadda la joogo waxa JWXO looga baahanyahay istratejiyad ku aaddan afar meelood:

1. In ay ku dadaasho sidii ay Jabhad sal-balaadh uga dhigi lahayd iyada oo laga rabo in ay soo jiidato dadyowga u hanqal taagaya in ay jabahadda oo la nidaamiyey ka mid noqdaan.

2. In ay ku adkaysato mabda’eeda xaqa ah ee ku aaddan dhulka Soomaaliyeed mawqifkeedana dardar geliso si ay uga mid noqoto wadahadallada la filayo sidi loogawada xaajoon lahaa xuduudaha Soomaalida iyo Oromod – gaar ahaan soo celinta goobaha la boobay sida Jiancsani, Mo’eso, Moyaale, Babili iyo meelo kaleba,

3. In mabda’ JWXO ee Mustaqbalka ku aaddan Afti Soomaalida laga qaado boodhka laga duuliyo, ummaddana lagu wacyi galiyo qaybaha iyo jadwelka ku aaddan Aftiga. Waxaad moodaa in dhinaacaa taageero badan loo hayo.

4. Barnaamijka Jabhada ee ku aadan doorashooyinka 2020 qabsoomi doona iyo istratajiyadeeda. Waxa laga rabaa JWXO in ay kaashato SRS sidii hal shaqsi hal cod loo hirgalin lahaa marka la gaadho doorashooyinka.

W.Q. Faysal cabdi rooble
Email: [email protected]

 


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