Wednesday, October 16, 2019
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Maxaa hortaagan horumarka dhaqaalaha Soomaaliya?

W/Q Maxamed Dalmar

Sida warbixinta Bankiga Adduunka ku soo baxday, Soomaaliya waxay ka mid tahay shanta dawladood ee adduunka ugu saboolsan. Afarta kale waa Malawi, Burundi, Jamhuuriyadda Bartama Africa (Central African Republic) iyo Niger.  Afartan dal ee dambe iyaga waaba loo garaabi karaa oo waa dalal yar yar oo aan la hayn bad iyo dekedo wax uga soo degaan (landlocked), innaguse waxaan leenahay xeebta ugu dheer afrika (3,333 km) ee maxaa inagu daray kooxdaas joqoraafigu ka hiiliyey. Waa yaabe, maxaa inoo diiday inaan ku tillaabsano horumar dhaqaale oo ina ka saara saboolnimada, innagoo ka faa’iideysanayna khayraadka faraha badan ee Eebbe ina ku mannaystey.

Waxaan jeclahay inaan maqaalkaan si kooban ugaga hadlo caqabadaha ama ibaarooyinka ku gudban horumarka dhaqaale Soomaaliyeed. Marka horese aan qeexo waxaan ula jeedo horumar dhaqaale.

Horumarka dhaqaalahu ma aha gawaari dhaldhalaaysa iyo daaro fooq ah. Horumarka dhaqaaaha dhabta ahi waa midka daboola baahida aasaasiga ah ee muwaadinka. Baahidaas waxaa ka mid ah: hooy uu qofku ku hoydo, cunto uu quuto, biyo iyo bay’ad nadiif ah, dhar uu xirto, nabadgelyo, adeeg waxbarasho iyo mid caafimaad, iyo addeegyo kale sida xoogga korontada (electricity), gaadiidka iyo shabakada internetka oo casrigaan lagama maarmaan noqotay.

Khariidadda Soomaaliya

Caqabaduhu waa badan yihiin; qof walibana si ayuu u arkaa. Anigu waxaan ka xusayaa kuwaan aan hoos ku taxayo:

1)Nabadgelyada: Caqabada ugu weeyn waa nabadgelyo la’aanta oo aan oggolayn in horumar la gaaro nooc kasta ha ahaade mid siyaasadeed, mid bulsho iyo mid dhaqaaleba. Horumarka dhaqaalaha iyo nabadgelyadu waa is-kabaan oo waa isuku xiran yihiin. Nabadgelyadu way kobcisaa dhaqaalaha, horumarka dhaqaaluhuna wuxuu xasiliyaa nabadgelyada. Sidoo kale horumarka dhaqaalaha iyo siyasaddu waa isku xiran yihiin. Dhaqaaluhu wuxuu xoojiyaa magaca iyo awoodda siyaasadda dalka. Dhaqaale-xumaduna waxay disha magaca iyo karaamada dalka, waxayna baddaa gacan hoorsi iyo gunnimo.

Sida la wada ogsoon yahay qaraxyada iyo colaadda joogtada ahi waxay dhaqaalaha u geystaan khasaare aan la soo koobi karin oo isugu jira dhimasho, dhaawac, hanti la burburiyey, qax iyo barakac, isgaarsiinta iyo isu-socodka ganacsiga oo xayirma iwm. Waxaa ka sii daran raadka ay amnidarradu reebayso oo ah cabsi iyo kalsoonidarro. Cabsidaas ayaa cayrineysa oo fogeyneysa dadka raba inay Soomaaliya maalgshadaan ama ha ahaadeen muwaadiniin ama ajnabi, dhaqaaluhuna sidaas ayuu fadhiid ku noqonayaa.

2) Qabyaaladda: Horumar dhaqale wuxuu ku yimaada kororka waxsoosaarka. Waxsoosaarna wuxuu ku yimaadaa shaqo badan, farsamo, aqoon iyo halabuur. Intaas keliya ma ahee, waa in wixii la soosaaray qaar kayd loo dhigaa oo dib loogu maalgeliya kobcinta iyo ballaarinta saldhigga waxsoosaarka iyadoo la adeegsanayo qalab casri ah. Qabyaaladdu Intaas oo dhan way ka soo horjeedaa waayo waxay ku dhisan tahay fikir ah: Ceeriin inoo ku qaybiya wixii la hayo. Waa deeqda dibedda ka timaada ama dakhliga yar ee canshuuraha ka soo xerooda. Maadaama wixii la helay ay kooban yhiin, aanna waxsoosaar lagu kordhin, qabiil wuxuu helo waxay ka go’an tahay qabiilada kale. Halkaasna waxaa ka dhasha tartan iyo loolan sad bursi ah. Loolankaasina wuxuu ku dhammaanayaa dagaal sokeeye iyo qarandumis. Horumarna warkiisaba daa.

3) Dowrka dawladda oo maqan: Waa Dawlad musallif ah oo khasnaddeedu maran tahay (bankrupt). Taasina waxay ka dhalatay dawladda kharashkeeda oo mar kasta ka badan dakhligeeda; Illeyn waa  dawlad la saaray culays aynan qaadi karin oo ah kharashka ku baxaya  boqollaal wasiir, wasiir-xigeen, xildhibaano, la-taliyayaal, saraakiil iyo agaasimayaal aan loo baahnayn balse lagu raalli gelinayo qabaa’ilka. Tusaale ahaan, 89%[i] miisaaniyadda dawladdu waxay ku baxdaa mushahar iyo masaariif kale oo aan xiriir la lahayn waxsoosaarka.  Haddaba, wuxuu dhaqaaluhu u dhutinaya waxaa maqan dawrkii dawladda kaga aadanaa xagga hourmarinta dhaqaalaha iyo bulshada sida adeegyada waxbarashada iyo caafimaadka, dhismaha iyo dayactirka kaabayaasha dhaqaalaha, tababarka shaqaalaha iyo shaqo-abuurka, dhiirigelinta iyo fududeynta maalgelinta (investments), sugidda sharciga iwm.

4) Qorshe horumarineed oo aan la fulineyn: Qorshe qurux badan oo tifaftiran  markuu qoran yahay, laakiinse aan la fulinayn. Sababtoo ah waxaa la waayey deeqdii dibedda laga sugayey, ama madaxdaa ayaan u soo jeedin, oo aalaaba ku mashquulsan doorashadooda. Waa qorshe aan la hayn bartilmaameed oo beegsanaya boqollaal mashruuc iyo hindisooyin aan loo hayn awood dhaqaale iyo mid maamul toonna, oo kaaga darane aan lahayn cid mas’uul ka ah oo lagula xisaabtamayo fulintiisa.

Waxaan is leeyahay, soo ma habboonaateen, iyadoo la tixgelinayo tabaryarideenna, in wixii la hayo maal, muruq iyo maskax la isugu geeyo hal meel oo laga miradhaliyo sida, bil matal, sugidda amniga oo la’aantiis aan la haweysan karin horumar dhaqaale. Ka fakar, haddii la oran lahaa waxaa xoogga la saaraya korontada oo weliba waxaa la maalgelinayaa korontada qorraxda laga dhaliyo oo la gaarsiinayaa magaalo kasta iyo tuulo kasta ee Soomaaliyeed. Hadda waxaa caqabad ku ah warshadeeynta dalka korontada oo aad qaali u ah ama aan la heleyn.

5) Musuqmaasuq: Musuqmaasuqu wuxuu ka mid yahay caqabadaha ugu waaweeyn ee ka soo horjeeda horumarka dhaqaalaha iyo bulshada; sababtoo ah hantidii qaranka ee loo adeegsan lahaa horumarka ayaa loo leexinayaa xisaabo iyo jeebab gaar ah oo shakhsi ah. Nasiibdarro, musuqmaasuqu wuxuu lafaha ka galay bulshada Soomaaliyeed dadaweyne iyo dawladba. Waa tan Hay’adda International Transparency qortay inay Soomaaliya tahay dalka adduunka ugu musuqmaasuq badan. Waa kan agaasimihii hore ee waaxda maaliyadda Mudane Cabdirisaaq Fartaag, oo la soo shaqeeyey xukumadihii jirey sanadihii min 2000 ilaa 2011 uu ku warbixiyey in lacag dhan $238 milyan oo loogu deeqay Soomaaliya ayan ku soo xeroon khasnadda dawladda ee lagu shubtay jeebab gaar ah. Waa dhaqan waagaas jirey, welina haddana jira ee sida Fartaag ayaan waayahaan dambe looga warbixin. Bal malee, meeqa dugsi ama isbitaal lagu dhisi lahaa lacagtaas, meeqa ceel lagu qodi lahaa, meeqa ciidan lagu hawl gelin lahaa, meeqa xoolo lagu tallaali lahaa, meeqa jidad loogu hagaajin lahaa, meeqa dhalinyaro lagu tababari lahaa, laguna shaqaaleeysiin lahaa, iwm.

Musuqmaasuqu dhaqaalaha keliya ma curyaamiyo ee wuxuu burburiya haykalka dawladnimo; wuxuu fasahaadiya mujtamaca; wuxuu sharciyadda iyo kalsoonida ka qaadaa xukuumadda; wuxuu abuura cadaaladdarro iyo xasiloonidarro: koox yar oo xaaraan-ku-naax ah iyo dadweeynaha, siiba danyarta, oo silicsan oo markay daryeelkay xaqa u lahaayeen waayaan, ku biira oo miciin bida kooxaha argagixisada ah.

6) Faragelinta shisheeyaha: Faragelinta shisheeyaha oo laba waji leh. Mid waa dawladaha aan dariska nahay oo colaad soo jreen ah ina kala dhaxeyso oo horumarkeena u arka khatartooda, mar kastana dhufays ugu jira siday inoo fashilin lahaayeen, inoo kala qaybin lahaayeen ama markay rabaan toosba inoo ku soo duula. Tan kale, waa quwadoo shisheeye oo ku loolamaya siday u hantiyi lahaayeen baddeenna, oo goob istrategi ah ku taal, iyagoo raba inay saldhigyo ka  sameeystaan. Loolaankoodaas ayaa si xun inoo samaynaya. Tusaale, waxay kala qaybinayaan oo kala xulafeeysanayaan siyasiyiinta, waxay iska horkeenayaan Dawladda Dhexe iyo Maamul Gobolyeedyada, waxay faragelinayaan oo laaluush ku bixinayaan, sida la sheegay, doorashooyinkeena, waxayna ina ku furayaan xasarad aanaan tabar u hayn oo naga leexisa dariiqii horumarka, iskufilaanshaha iyo madaxbannaanida.

Intaas Ayaan ku soo koobayaa caqabadaha, aan isleeyahay, waa inoo diiiddan yihiin inaan hor u marno oo dadkeenna faqriga ka saarno. Haddaan sii kala guro, qabyaaladda ayaan ku tilmaami lahaa hooyada caqabadaha. Iyada ayaa marinaysa khasnadda dawladda markay tiri qabaa’ilka ha la raalligeliyo; iyada ayey ku soo gabadaan kuwa raba inay ina farageliyaan, iyada ayaa qabiil ahaan u daafacda qofkii xoolaha dadweeynaha ku tagrifala iwm.

Maxamed Dalmar
Email: [email protected]

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Maxamed Dalmar waxa uu xilal kala duwan ka soo qabtay Bangiga Dhexe ee Soomaaliya, isaga oo ahaa Agaasimaha Guud ee Bangiga Dhexe, islamarkaana Bare Sare ka ahaa kuliyaddii Dhaqaalaha ee Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed. Dalmar  waxa uu degelkan WardheerNews kaga  faaloodaa arrimaha dhaqaalaha.

——————

Maqaallo kale oo la xidhiidha Mawduuca
Geeddi Socodka Dhaqaalaha Soomaaliyeed W/Q Maxamed Dalmar


[i] World Bank, Somalia Economic Update, October 2015


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