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Xatabadda Doorashada: Taabbagelinta Xisbiyo Badan iyo Baarlamaan Tayo Leh 

W/Q. Mustafa Fayruus  

Hannaanka xisbiyada badan waxaa weheliya welwel ah in xisbiyadu noqdaan tirabbeel tabar daran, oo aan tayo iyo taag siyaasadeed midna lahayn ‘fragmented small-sized parties’, iyo kala baahid iyo habqan ku dhaca metelaadda dadweynaha ee baarlamaanka ‘fragmentation of representation’. Waa laba arrimood oo xiriir leh, sida badanna horseeda hoos u dhaca kartida iyo karaanka maamul ee xukuumadda, dhaawicina kara deganaanshaha siyaasadeed ee dalka. Sidaas darteed, waa in lafagurid iyo talo ku filan la geliyaa sidii loo dejin lahaa, loona taabbagelin lahaa, hannaan doorasho si habboon oo miisaaman u maareynaya habqanka metelaadda baarlamaanka; waxaana la isku dayaa in la furdaamiyo ama la xakameeyo habqankaa xisbiyada tiradhaafka ah.  

Habka loo yaqaan ‘electoral threshold’ ama ‘xatabadda doorashada’ waa hannaan doorashada raaca oo lagu furdaamiyo mushkiladdan ah habqanka metelaadda, si xisbiyada baarlamaanka imanayaana u noqdaan kuwo, illaa heer, waxgal ah. 

Siyaasadda Soomaalida Geeska Afrika waxaa lagu adeegsaday, lagana hadalhayaa, laba hab oo lagu xakamaynayo tiradhaafka xisbiyada; habka ‘xatabadda doorashada’ iyo habka ‘xaddididda dhowr xisbi keliya’. Maqaalkani waa iftiimin iyo gorfayn kooban, oo arrintan ku aadan.  

Sideedaba, siyaasad iyo maamul dawladeed qaangaar ah waxaa taabbagelin kara xisbiyo tayo leh; tayada iyo taagta xisbiyadana waxaa saameyn ku leh hannaanka doorashada. Sidaas darteed, waa lagama maarmaan in laga shaqeeyo jaangoynta iyo hirgelinta hannaan doorasho fiyow oo horseeda xisbiyo tayo leh. 

1. Xatabadda Doorashada 

Hababka ugu caansan ee maareynta habqanka metelaadda waxaa ka mid ah  ‘electoral threshold’ ama ‘xatabadda doorashadu’.i Xatabadda doorashadu waa in xisbiyada lagu shardiyo inay helaan tiro go’an oo ah codadka codbixiyayaasha (sida 01%, 03% ama 05% ee tirada codbixiyayaasha dalka) si ay xildhibaanno ugu yeelan karaan baarlamaanka.

Xisbigii tiradaa ka yar helaa xildhibaanno kuma yeelan karo baarlamaanka, codadkuu doorashada ka helayna way gubanayaan. Tiradaa boqolleyda ayaa ah xatabadda baarlamaanka lagu geli karo, la’aanteed maya. Xatabadda doorashadu waxay leedahay noocyo kala duwan, laakiin nooca loogu adeegsi badan yahay waa habkan boqolleyda ah, waxaana lagu qoraa dastuurka ama xeerka doorashada/xisbiyada, sidaas darteed, waxaa loo yaqaan ‘formal threshold’ ama ‘legal threshold’.ii

Habkan ‘xatabadda doorashada’ wuxuu aalaaba lagu adeegsada hannaanka doorashooyinka ee ‘metelaadda saamigalka’ ama ‘proportional representation’.iii 

Dalalku way ku kala duwan yihiin boqolleyda xatabadda, qaar yareeya iyo qaar badiyaba. Sida shaxda hoose ka muuqata, dalalka xatabadda yar adeegsada waxaa ka mid ah Nertherlands (0.67%) iyo Uruguay (1%), halka dalalka qaarkood xatabaddoodu aad u sarayso sida Turkiya (7%),iv badise dalalku waxay u dhexeeyaan 3-5%. Fiiri shaxda hoose.v 

 Dalka Xatabadda Xisbiga Xatabadda Isbahaysiga 
Netherlands 0.67% – 
Uruguay 1% – 
Burundi  2% – 
Bosnia 3% – 
Italy  3% 10% 
Indonesia 4% – 
Bulgaria 4% – 
Armenia 5% 7% 
Poland 5% 8% 
10 Mozambique  5% – 
11 Rwanda 5% – 
12 Türkiye 7% 7% 

Si looga taxaddaro in xisbiyadu si xeeladaysan uga dhuuntaan xatabadda doorashada, dalalka qaarkood xatabad ka saraysa tan xisbiyada ayay u sameeyaan isbahaysiyada doorashada gelaya ‘pre-election alliances’. Tusaale ahaan, dalka Talyaanigu xisbiyada wuxuu u shardiyaa xatabad ah 3%, laakiin isbahaysiyada wuxuu u shardiyaa 10%, halka Poland xisbiyada laga rabo 5%, isbahaysiyadase 8% (Fiiri shaxda kore). 

Xatabaddu waxay suurtagelinaysaa in xisbiyada baarlamaanka soo gelayaa noqdaan kuwo dadweynaha ka haysta taageero loo qaateen ah oo cuddoon, xisbiyada aadka u taageerada yarna waa laga riixay inay baarlamaanka metelaad ku yeeshaan; ha soo koraan, hana soo gaaraan inay haaban karaan xatabadda baarlamaanka lagu gelayo! 

Dhinaca kale, haddii boqolleyda xatabadda aad sare loogu qaado, waxay dhaawacaysaa mabda’a metelaadda dadweynaha ‘representation principle’, oo hannaanka metelaadda baarlamaanka tiirdhexaad u ah. Waxaa gubanaya/khasaaraya codad badan, oo noqonaya ‘wasted votes’, waxaana kordhaya heerka isweydaarka u dhexeeya codadkii dadweynaha iyo xildhibaannada kuraasta ku fadhiya. 

Tusaale ahaan, doorashadii Jarmalka ee 2013, 15.7% ka mida dadweynuhu waxay u codeeyeen xisbiyo aan ka soo gudbin xatabadda, oo ahayd 5%, sidaasna waxay ku noqdeen codad khasaaray. Doorashooyinkii 1991 iyo 2013 ee Bulgaariya, oo xatabaddu ahayd 4%, 24% codbixiyayaashu waxay u codeeyeen xisbiyo xatabaddu reebtay, sidaasna waxaa ku khasaaray ku dhowaad rubuc codadkii la dhiibtay. Doorashadii Poland ee 1993, oo xatabadda xisbiyadu ahayd 5% tan isbahaysiyaduna 8%, codadka sidaa ku khasaaray waxay dhaafayeen 34%. Doorashadii baarlamaanka Turkiya ee 2002, oo xatabaddu ahayd 10%, waxaa xatabadda soo gaari waayay tiro xisbiyo ah, sidaas darteedna codadkii ay heleen ay sidaas ku gubteen. Codadka sidaa lagu qubay waxay noqdeen 46.33% ee tirada codadkii dadweynaha, waa codad kala bar ku dhow. Sidaas darteed, ayaa baarlamaanka Turkigu xatabadda doorashada hoos u dhigay kana dhigay 7% Maarso 2022, laguna galay doorashadii Meey 2023.vi 

Haddaba, si codadkaa khasaaraya loo yareeyo waa in boqoleyda xatabadda la yareeyaa. Sidaas darteed, ayaa Midowga Yurub faray dalalka xubnaha ka ah in doorashada baarlamaanka Yurub ayna xatabaddu marna ka badnaan 5%.vii 

2. Xaddididda Tirada Xisbiyada, Laba ama Saddex 

Habkani waa in dalku ku dhawaaqo inuu ku soconayo hannaanka xisbiyada badan, isla markaana ku xaddido tirada guud ee xisbiyada sida labo ama saddex, ka badanna aan la oggolaan. Habkan, oo aan dunida caan ka ahayn, si buu Geeska Afrika u soo yara maray, haddase wuu ka sii baaba’ayaa. 

Dabcan, waxaa jira dalal ku shaqeeya hannaanka xisbiyada badan, qaanuunkuna aanu tiradooda xaddidayn. Laakiin, ay jiraan dhowr xisbi oo dadweynuhu aad u taageeraan, sidaas darteedna hela badiba kuraasta baarlamaanka. Qaanuunku wuu oggol yahay xisbiyo badan, laakiin dadweynaha ayaa dhaqan ahaan dhowr xisbi keliya aad u taageera, sida labada xisbi ee Maraykanka ugu caansan. Tani way ka duwan tahay in qaanuunku tirada xisbiyada ku koobo laba ama saddex keliya. 

Sannadkii 1992 ayay Jabuuti go’aansatay inay isaga guurto hannaanka xisbi keliyaalaha ah, oo ay ku socotay siday xorriyadda u qaadatayba. Waxaa la oggolaaday in dalku yeelan karo ugu badnaan afar xisbi keliya, sidaas ayayna ku socotay muddo toban sanno ah, waa 1992-2002. Deedna way isaga guurtay oo waa la furay tirada xisbiyada.viii Somaliland ayaa iyana qaadatay hannaan ah saddex xisbi oo keliya; laga soo bilaabo doorashadii Diisambar 2002 ilaa maantana way ku socotaa.ix Puntland ayaa iyana tirada xisbiyada ku koobtay saddex keliya, laakiin markay u hollatay taabbagelinta hannaanka xisbiyada badan waxay garawsatay ceebaha waaweyn ee xaddidaaddu leedahay, waxay go’aansatay inay ka guurto.

Rafasho dheer kadib, waxay u guurtay hannaanka ‘xatabadda doorashada’ oo ay ka dhigtay 5%.x Dawladda Federaalka Soomaaliya muddaba waxay la rafanaysaa siday u hirgelin lahayd hannaanka xisbiyada badan. Shirkii ‘Golaha Wadatashiga  Qaran’ ee Muqdisho ka dhacay Meey 2023 waxay ku taliyeen in dalku u gudbo doorasho dadweyne sannadka 2024, waxayse tirada xisbiyada ku koobeen laba xisbi qaran oo keliya.xi Waxaase ka daba yimid diidmo iyo dhawaaqyo badan oo ka dardaarwerinaya xaddididda tirada xisbiyada. 

Halkan ka akhri maqaalka oo dhamaystiran: Xatabadda Doorashada: Taabbagelinta Xisbiyo Badan iyo Baarlaaman Tayo Leh

Mustafa Fayruus 
Email: [email protected] 

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Mustafa Fayruus waa bare jaamacadeed iyo cilmibaare wax ka qora arrimaha Soomaalida, ka tirsan Machadka Cilmibaarista Soomaaliyeed (Institute for Somali Studies – ISOS) ee Jaamacadda Muqdisho. 


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