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Maana-faay: Horyaalka Sheeko-faneedda Soomaaliyeed

W.Q. Bare Sare Mustafa Fayruus

Maana-faay waa sheeko-faneed soo baxday 1979, iyadoo taxane maalinle ah ayayna ku soo bixi jirtay Wargeyska Xiddigta Oktoobar, si aad ahna waa loo jeclaystay. Kaddibna waxaa laga dhigay buug ah nooca sheeko dheer ama ‘qiso’ ama ‘novel’, qiyaastii 300 bog ah, waxaana Muqdisho lagu daabacay 1981. Waxaa xigay Sweden 1993 iyo Ingiriiska UK 1997. Waxaa dhowaan soo baxay daabacaddii 4aad oo aad loo tifaftiray, lana sii qurxiyay; waxaana lagu daabacay Ingiriiska 2018.

Waxaa iyana jirtay in idaacado kala duwan si joogto ah looga akhriyay, waxaa ka mid ah Xasan Kaafi Qoyste oo ka akhriyay dhowr idaacadood, iyo Cabdulaahi ‘Gacanka’ oo ka akhriyay Idaacadda Goobjoog. Sidoo kale, barta YouTube ayaa lagu baahiyay.

Qisadan waxaa loogu magac daray gabadha udubdhexaadka u ah sheekada oo la yiraahdo ‘Maana-faay Xaaji Muumin’.

Dr Maxamed D. Afrax

Qoraaga qisada Maana-faay waa Dr Maxamed Daahir Afrax. Waa qoraa leh sheekooyin shaacbaxay; waxaa ka mid ah ‘Guur ku sheeg’ (1975), Maana-faay (1979), Galti macaruuf (1980), Ambad, Ha imaan lahaydaa (1995), Talo-seeg (2007) ikk; iyo riwaayaddi Durbaan Been ah (1979). Sidoo kale, waa xeeldheere af Soomaaliga iyo falanqeeye suugaanta. Curinta sheeko faneedda mala`awaalka ah ka sokow, wuxuu leeyahay buugaag kale.

Sheekada Maana-faay waxay inna dhex geyneysaa noloshii magaalada Muqdisho ee 40 sanno ka hor, waa xilli magaalonimadeedu maraysay meeshii ugu sarraysay ee ay mar gaadhay; ayse madaxmartay dhaqanxumo aan lala gabbanayn, sida xaabsiga lacagta, u haliilka tumasho waalli ah oo aan loo kala harin rag iyo dumar, dhallinyaro iyo waayeel; ayna horseed ka ahaayeen madaxdii laga sugayay inay dadka ku hoggaamiyaan dawga toosan, waliba hantidii ummadda ayay u adeegsanayeen dhaqankan gurracan.

Sadaradan soo socda, si kooban ayaan ugu faaqidi doonaa qisadan Maana-faay, aniga oo ka eegi doona dhinacyo kala duwan. 

I) Afshaxanka iyo Habqoraalka Faneed 

Qisada Maana-faay waxay ku qoran tahay habqoraal faneed aad u heer sarreeya oo u yeelay arrimo ay ka mid yihiin: dhumuc iyo qotodheeri ay ku tebinayso farriinta ay xambaarsan tahay, uuna akhristuhu si xoog leh ugu saamoobayo; in qisadu si joogto ah u taabayso fikirka iyo dareenka akhristaha ; iyo xiise joogta ah oo aan laga dhergayn akhrinteeda.

Afshaxannimada qisadan waxaa ka mid ah:

1) Sifaynta & Hummaagaynta; si xirfadaysan ayuu qoraagu sawirmaskaxeed uga abuurayaa dhacdada, goobta, qofka iyo xaaladaha kale ee ku xeeran. Wuxuu ka adeejinayaa dareemayaasha akhristaha, sida aragga, maqalka, taabashada iwm. Wuxuuba ka dhigayaa qof goobta joogay!

2) Adeegsiga luqad sahlan, kana dhisan ‘weero gaagaaban’ oo qofku aanu ku dhex lumayn iyo ‘erayo tayo leh’ oo ay weheliso adeegsi xirfadaysan oo dhumuc iyo quruxba u kordhinaya. Tusaale ahaan, waxaad arkaysaa erayadii miyiga oo uu u adeegsanayo aaladaha casriga, sida ‘afdhuublaynta fatuuradda’ (b.39). afdhuublayn waa orod geelu caan ku yahay.

3) Adeeegsiga luqad ku habboon xaaladda iyo qofka hadlaya. Maana-faay waxay ku hadlaysaa af Reer xamar, Cumareey afka ciyaalka xamar, Jaamac Dhegeyna afkuu miyiga kala yimid, Kulmiyena afka dhallinyarada reer magaalka. Sidoo kale, qoraagu wuxuu adeegsanayaa hadal ku habboon marba mawqifka iyo maqaamka la joogo; u fiirso wuxuu Axmed jaamac kala doodayaa saaxiibkii Kulmiye arrimaha uu ku khaldan yahay, halka uu aabbihii Jaamac Dhegey aad uga gaabsanayo ixtiraam dartiis, waa siduu dhaqanku yahay e!

4) Dhexgalka iyo akhrinta dareenka qofka, fikirkiisa iyo isla hadalkiisa iwm. Sida falanqayn cilmi-nafsi ah, wuxuu u dhaadhacayaa dabeecadda nafta aadanaha ee khayrka iyo sharku ku loolamayaan, ilaha sharka iyo fursadaha khayrkuna ku gadaaman yihiin!

5) Saafidda xaaladda bulshada: sifaynta dhaqanka, fikradaha, mashaakilka iyo xaaladaha (ظواهر اجتماعية) ama (Social phenomenon) is dhex mushaaxaya.. waxay ka dhigan tahay duruus cilmi-ijtimaac (Sociology) ah oo falanqaynaysa bulshadii Muqdisho 40 sanno ka hor.

Afshaxannimada faneed ee qisadani waxay ka soo burqanaysaa adeegsiga xirfadaysan ee luqadda, adeegsiga qurxiyeyaasha hadalka, falkinta dhacdooyinka iyo hummaagyada sida filimka si daba taxan.

Ku darsoo, qisadani waxay wada bartilmaameedsanaysaa, si joogto ahna u taabaysaa, fikirka (ideas) iyo dareenka (feelings) akhristaha. Hanashada fikirka iyo ka-shaqaysiinta caqliga akhristuhu si joogto ah ayay u barbar socotaa ka adeejinta dareenkiisa iyo shucuurkiisa. Midkoodna ma sii daynayso inta akhristuhu dhex jibaaxayo saddexdeeda boqol ee bog.

Afshaxannimada faneed ee qoraalka qisadan waxaa weheliya farriimo ‘dhumuc’ leh oo ay tebinayso.

II) Farriimaha Maana-faay 

Qisada Maana-faay waxay saafaysaa dhaqammada iyo fikradaha bulshada Soomaaliyeed ka dhex jiray xilliga ay qisadani soo baxaysay ee 1970aadkii iyo 1980aadkii. Waxay farta ku fiiqaysaa dhaqammadaas kuwooda gurracan ee halista ku ah fayoobida bulshada iyo horumarkeeda, waxay ka qaylodhaaminaysaa ‘dhiqlaha mujtamaca ku dhex jira’ [b.263]; waxayna ka dardaarwerinaysaa cawaaqibxumada ka dhalan karta dhaqanxumadaas xawliga ku socday ; waaba ta ka dhalatay ee toban sanno dabadeed ay burburtay magaaladii Muqdisho dadkeediina kala haaday e!!

Dhaqammada gurracan ee qisada Maana-faay farta ku fiiqaysaa waa afar nooc, oo kala ah: 

1) Kutagrifalkii hantida iyo awoodda ummadda ee ay ku kacaan ‘kuwa xukunka iyo xoolaha haysta’ [b. 285] una adeegsada dano gaar ahaaneed iyo ‘burburinta da`yarta iyo danyarta’ [b. 283]. Waa qolada uu matalayo Jaamac Dhegey iyo odayada saaxiibbadiis ah.

Kooxdani hantidii ummadda iyo hoggaankii gacantooda ku jiray ayay u adeegsanayeen dhaqammadooda gurracan ee ay ku hagardaamaynayeen da’yarta una horseedayeen halaag ba’an.

2) Dhaqammo gaboobay oo aan la jaanqaadi karin nolosha casrigan, carqaladna ku ah bulshada, sida qalafsanaanta xaddhaafka ah ee aabbayaashu kula dhaqmaan ubadkooda iyo guurka khasabka ah ikk. Dhaqammadan waxaa tusaale u ah habdhaqanka Xaaji Muumin & Jaamac Dhegey ay ubadkooda kula dhaqmayeen.

3) Dhaqammo innagu cusub oo la socda nolosha casriga, kuwan oo la moodo ilbaxnimo ama la bido maaweelo, runtiise ah ‘aafo’ bulshada ku habsatay. Waxaa ka mid ah balwadaha qaadka, khamriga, tumashada ; gogoldhaafka baahsan ikk. waxaa xilliyadaas soo ifbaxay dumar ‘fataalidda’ meherad ka dhigtay, guryana u furtay isugaynta ragga iyo dumarka. Noocan waxaa tusaale u ah geerashaynta Jaamac Dhegey, dhallinyarannimada balwaddu dilootay ee Kulmiye, iyo shirkadda ka ganacsiga gabdhaha curdinka ah ee ay Beyddan Shabeel agaasinto.

Dhaqammadan gurracani waa aafooyin halis ku ah caafimaadka bulshada, dhismaha qoyska, iyo mustaqbalka qofkaba.

4) Nooca afraad waa dhaqammo qayb ka ah dabciga aadmiga, meel uu joogo iyo xilli uu joogaba, oo ay qisadu baraarujinayso; sida beenta, munaafaqnimada, laba-wajiilaynta, xasadka, anaaniyadda ikk.

Waxaa kale oo ka mid ah (b) Is-afgaranwaaga labada jiil ee waayeelka iyo dhallinyarada ‘generation gap’; iyo (t) loolanka u dhexeeya hidderaaca dhaqammada soojireenka ah iyo casriyaynta ‘tradition vs modernity’. Tani waxaa tusaale u ah kalamaanka u dhexeeya Xaaji Muumin iyo gabdhaha uu dhalay iyo, sidoo kale, Axmed iyo aabbihii Jaamac Dhegey.

Tusaale ahaan, Xaaji Muumin wuxuu ku dhegan yahay dhaqanka Banaadiriga, wuuna ka maagayaa inuu gabdhihiisa u guuriyo wiil ‘lamma-goodle’ ah, isagoo ka duulaya maahmaahda Banaadiriga ‘misbaax minankaaga u baahan minan dadow ma la geeyo’. Gabdhihiisu dhaqankan kuma qanacsana, waxay is jeclaadeen, isna calfadeen wiilal ‘lamma-goodle’ ah!

Guud ahaan, afarta nooc ee dhaqammada gurracan ah, ee aan kor ku soo xusnay, waa dhaqammo iyo fikrado bulshada ku dhex legdamaya. Hadii aan lagu baraarugin, deedna si sax ah loola falgelin, waxay leeyihiin saamayntooda ‘taban’ oo wiiqi karta nolosha qofka iyo bedqabka bulshada iyo horumarkeedaba.

Qisadan Maana-faay waxay ku baaqaysaa isbeddel bulsho iyo ‘in la dabargooyo dhammaan dhaqannada gaboobay ee horumarka caqabadda ku ah iyo kuwa cusub ee [ay] ka soo fufayaan cudurrada bulshada ku dhex faafay’ [b. 296]. Waxay hoosta ka xarriiqaysaa in fayoobida bulshadu shardi u tahay horumarka iyo gaarista nolol habboon ‘horumar lama higsan karo la`aanta bulsho fayow’ [b. 297].

Farriimahan dhumucda leh waxay qisadani ku tebinaysaa si farshaxannimo iyo xallad leh, saamayn iyo raadna reebaya.

III) Shakhsiyaadka Qisada

Jilayaasha ama shakhsiyaadka qisadan jilaya waxaa ka mid ah Maana-faay, Jaamac Dhegey, Beyddan Shabeel, Sahra Yuusuf, Axmed Jaamac, Xaaji Muumin, Faadumo Yarey ikk.

Maana-faay Xaaji Muumin waa shakhsiyadda udubdhexaadka u ah qisadan. Waa gabadh ‘Banaadiri’ ah, deggan gurigoodii ay ku dhalatay ee Xamar Weyne. magaceeda lammaanan ee ‘Maana-faay’ wuxuu xambaarsan yahay kalgacalkii iyo koolkoolintii waalidkeed ku gardaadiyeen; waa sida magacyada Caasha-kiin, Xaawa-luul, Maryama-muxubbo ikk.

Maana-faay waa inan 18 jir ah,  dhigata dugsiga sare, leh qalbi fiican iyo dabeecad furfuran; waxayse qabtaa ilnugayl iyo waayo-aragnimo yari u nuglaysay hirdida iyo harraatida waayaha nolosha. Maana-faay waxaa qarqiyay mawjado ka tan badan, burbur bayna faro ciddi leh kaga badbaaday.

Xaaji Muumin: Waa Maana-faay aabbeheed. Waa oday ganacsade  reer Xamar ah, ku dheggan dhaqankiisa ‘Banaadiriga’. Dhaqammada soojireenka ah ayaa ku qufulan, nolosha casriguna kuma duxin. Carruurtiisa aad buu u jecel yahay, wuuse baalmarsan yahay farsamadii barbaarintooda saxda ah. Noloshiisu waa ‘is diidan’ kulmisa niyadwanaag iyo farsamo xumaan laasimay!

Jaamac Dhegey wuxuu ku soo barbaaray dhibaatada miyiga, magaalada is koris ayuu ku noqday. Dhaawaca dhegtiisa ka muuqdaa wuxuu astaan u yahay dhaawacyada dahsoon ee shakhsiyaddiisa ku tegey! Waana ta ay naanaysta ‘Dhegey’ dawanka u tahay! Kacaakuf iyo dadaal dabadeed wuxuu madax ka noqday ‘mashruuca sahaminta hawada’!! Ninkan lixdan jirka ku dhow waxaa hiyigiisa buuxiyay inuu dhakhso u taajiro, si waalanna u tunto. Hantidii iyo awooddii ummadda wuxuu u adeegsadaa marinhabaabinta da’da cusub. Hase yeeshee xumaantaa uma quuro qoyskiisa. Jaamac Dhegey waa laba-wejiile xambaarsan dhaqamo iska soo horjeeda, wejiba cid gaar ah ayuu kula dhaqmaa.

Axmed Jaamac, waa injineer da’ yar oo u dhalay Jaamac Dhegey, dhowaanna ka soo qalinjabiyay jaamacad dibadda ah. Axmed waa daacad ay is waafaqsan yihiin noloshiisa qaybteeda muuqata iyo qaybteeda dahsoon. Waa u daacad naftiisa, qoyskiisa, shaqadiisa iyo guud ahaanba bulshada; damiirkiisuna wuu siin la`yahay inuu midkoodna khiyaamo.

Axmed wuxuu ku hanweyn yahay inuu helo gabar wanaagsan oo uu guursado, hase yeeshee dhaqammada gurracan ee muuqday shaki bay ku beereen.

Dhinaca kale, Axmed waxaa taabtay duruufihii dabaqadda dhexe haystay, mushaarka uu qaataa wuu ku filaan la`yahay noloshiisa, musuqna damiirkiisaa u diiday.

Kulmiye, waa nin dhallinyaro ah oo ay Axmed saaxiib yihiin, dhaqan ahaanse si walba isku lid yihiin.

Kulmiye wuxuu astaan u yahay xumaanta bulshada ku dhex bulaalaysay.  Waa calooshi-la-ciyaar shabeel-naagood ah, guurkana u arka ‘nacasnimo iyo ikhtiyaarkii oo la iska qaadayo’ [b.24], wuxuu u heelan yahay curdan-dhadhinta hablaha yaryar. Inkasta oo uu tacliinta ku liitay haddana Kulmiye eex ayuu ku helay deeq waxbarasho oo Talyaaniga loogu diray, waxbase kama soo kororsan. Mushaarka uu qaataa kuma fila.

Beyddan Shabeel, magaceedu wuxuu xambaarsan yahay ‘is diidan’ ah hanweynida waalidkeed u qabay markuu ula baxay ‘Beyddan’ iyo nolosha fataalidda iyo silica isa sudhan ah ee ay badeen waayaha nolosha oo ku beeray ‘baydad’ iyo ‘sas’ laasimay.

Beyddan waa haweenay da’-dhexaad ah oo ay duruufuhu diloodeen, abaar miyiga ku haleeshay ayaa u soo eriday magaalada, oo ay iyana wax daryeel ah ka helin. Beyddan waxay karaankeeda u hurtay halgankii gobannimodoonka. Waxaan ‘hungo’ ahayn kama helin calankii iyo xornimadii ay u soo halgantay, mar kale, waxay ku qaday Kacaankii curashadiisa ay u hanweyneyd! 

Beyddan intay jirtayba waxaan ‘dayac iyo dulmi’ ahayn kama dheefin dadkeeda iyo dawladdeeda ilaa ay ka ‘baydaday’, nidarna ku martay inay ka ‘aargudato’ bulshadan horraantiina dayacday, gadaashiina ka abaaldhacday. 

Waxaa u furan guri lagu geerasheeyo oo ay gabdhaha curdinka ah ugu loogto Shabeel-naagoodka; fataaliddu waxay u tahay hubka ay kaga aargudato bulshada dayaca iyo dulmigaba ay ka tabanayso!

Lixdaa shakhsi tusaale haynoogu noqdaan jilayaasha qisadan.

Gabaggabadii 

Qisada Maana-faay abla`ablaynta sheeko-faneedyada waxay kaga aroortaa nooca arrimaha bulshada (social novel). Waxay lafaguraysaa arrimaha ay ka mid yihiin, faqriga iyo dhibaatadiisa, arrimaha haweenka, arrimaha carruurta, mashaakilka bulshada iyo waxyeelladooda. Waxay ku baaqaysaa dabargoynta dhaqammada gurracan si loo helo bulsho fayow oo gaarta horumar iyo nolol habboon.

Qisadani farriimaheeda waxay ku tebinaysaa afshaxannimo faneed ka soo burqanaysaa adeegsiga xirfadaysan ee luqadda iyo xulashada erayada, shakhsiyaadka iyo kaalinta ay jilayaan oo isku sar go`an, xabkada iyo falkinta dhacdooyinkeeda, adeegsiga qurxiyeyaasha hadalka iyo qalabka afka maldahan, iyo sifayn xeeldheer oo abuuraysa hummaagyo qofka loo hordhigayo sida filimmada lagana adeejinaya dareemayaashiisa sida aragga, maqalka iwm. ‘Adigoo mowjad dhex mushaaxayey ayaad ku war helaysaa mowjad kale oo intay tii hore ka hoos dhalatay kula baaxaa degaysa.’

Qisadan Maana-faay waxay soo ifbixisay hibada iyo kartida hal`abuur ee qoraaga ku fara yaraystay xardhiddeeda Dr Maxamed Daahir Afrax; waxayna kulansatay farriimo dhumuc leh iyo afshaxannimo aan laga xiise goynayn, sidaas darteed, ayay u mudan tahay inaan ku magacawno ‘Horyaalka Sheeko-faneedda Soomaaliyeed’!!

Tilmaamo

1- ‘Wargeyska Xiddigta Oktoobar’ waa wargeys maalinle ah oo ay Wasaaradda Warfaafinta iyo Hanuuninta Dadweynaha ee Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiga Soomaaliya, wuxuu ahaa wargeyska keliya ee maalinle ah ee af Soomaali ku soo bixi jiray guud ahaanba dalka.

2- Sida qoruhu goobo dhowr ah ka sheegay, badiba akhrimahan kala duwan lama ilaalin taxnaantii qoraalka sheekada.

3- Curinta sheeko faneedda iyo buugaagta kale ka sokow, Dr Maxamed Daahir Afrax waa xeeldheere iyo falanqeeye suugaanta Soomaalida, cilmiga suugaantana ku haysta shahaadada PhD oo uu ka qaatay Jaamacadda London; wuxuuna wax ku qoraa luqadaha Soomaaliga, Carabiga iyo Ingiriisiga. Waxaa iyana jira sheeko faneedyo uu ku qoray af carabi.

4- Waxaa mahadnaq iga mudan akhyaarta kala ah: Dr Maxamed Daahir Afrax oo dhiirrigelin iyo xogba igu kordhiyay; Saynab Xaaji (Ugbaad) oo gacan iga siisay raadinta xogta qaarkeed; Xeeldheeraha suugaanta Cabdullaahi Sh Cabdi (Gacanka) oo xog iyo fikradba igu kordhiyay.

5- Waxaan hore ugu faaqiday qisadan Maana-faay maqaal kooban oo cinwaankiisu yahay ‘Qisada Maana-faay: Farriimo Dhumuc leh iyo Afshaxannimo Faneed’ kuna soo baxay Warsidaha AGA: Waa Warside-Xilliyeed ku Hadla Codka Akadeemiye-Goboleedka AfSoomaaliga (AGA). Tirsiga 6aad, Sannadka 2aad, Abriil-Juun 2019, bb. 3-4. Sidoo kale, dhinacyada qaarkood waxan si faahfaahsan ugu falnqeeyay waraysi uu ila yeeshay Goobjoog TV, isagoo laba qaybood ahna la tebiyay Abriil/May 2019.

6- Erayadan ku dhex jira labadan qaabso [] waxaan ka soo qaatay qisada Maana-faay, lamabarada bogga ee aan tilmaamayaana waa daabacaadda afraad (2018) e qisadan.

7- Riwaayaddii Shabeel Naagood (1968) ee uu curiyay Xasan Sheekh Muumin waxay soo bandhigaysay shabeel naagood oo ah nin iskii gabdhaha u ugaadhsanay. Laakiin qisadan Maana-faay waxay soo bandhigtay shabeel nagood oo noqday ‘mu`asaso’ iyo ‘shabakad abaabulan’, oo ay soo baxeen haween ka shaqaysta, lacagna ka abuura, inay gabdhaha u soo dabaan shabeel naagoodka. Tani Maana-faay waxay la wadaagtaa riwaayaddii ‘Hablayahow hadmaad guursan doontaan’ oo ay isku xilli dhowaayeen.

8- Baydan ama beyddan waa magac loo baxsho gabadh la rajaynayo inay noqoto mid deggan oo toosan.

Mustafa C. Fayruus
Email: [email protected] 
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Fayruus waa xeeldheere cilmi-afeedka iyo af Soomaaliga iyo suugaantiisa; Bare jaamacadeed Jaamacadda Muqdisho ka dhiga daraasaadka Soomaalida [Somali Studies]; ka mid ah qorayaashii qaamuuska ‘SOO MAAL QAAMUUS AFSOOMAALI’ lagu daabacay Jabuuti 2013; Tifaftiraha sare ee “Somali Studies: A Peer-Reviewed Academic Journal for Somali Studies” oo uu soo saaro Machadka Cilmibaarista Soomaaliyeed; la-qore buugga ‘Haldoor: Taariikh-nololeedkii iyo Dhaxal-cilmiyeedkii Shariif Saalax’.

Ka tirsan xarumo aqooneed kala duwan, sida: Akadeemiye-Goboleedka AfSoomaaliga (AGA); Akadeemiyada Afrika ee Afafka (ACALAN), ku taal Bamako, Mali; Agaasimaha Machadka Cilmibaarista Soomaaliyeed (ISOS) ee Jaamacadda Muqdisho

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Tixraac:

Maxamed Daahir Afrax (2018). ‘Maana-faay’ . Looh Press; 4th edition. Lester, UK.

Mustafa Fayruus (2019). ‘Lafaguridda Qisada Maana-fay’. Goobjoog TV (Barnaamijka Xog iyo Xusuus), la tebiyay Abriil/May 2019. Laga heli karaa https://youtu.be/_urSxfGZl_I. 

Mustafa Fayruus (2019). ‘Qisada Maana-faay: Farriimo Dhumuc leh iyo Afshaxannimo Faneed’ kuna soo baxay Warsidaha AGA [Akadeemiye-Goboleedka AfSoomaaliga], Tirsiga 6aad, Sannadka 2aad, Abriil-Juun 2019, bb. 3-4. 


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